Ticket #6119: wsc_source_error.txt

File wsc_source_error.txt, 295.7 KB (added by Wiktor Walc, 11 years ago)
Line 
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51                                <div class="toggle-box">
52                                        <a href="#" onclick="toggleNotice();return false">Hide</a></div>
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54                                        <div class="vector-bughunt-banner-base-left">
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57                                                                <a class="vector-bughunt-banner-message-left" href="http://meta.wikimedia.org/wiki/2010_Wikimedia_design_and_feature_change">Wikipedia is getting a new look.</a><br />
58                                                                <a class="vector-bughunt-banner-message-right" href="http://meta.wikimedia.org/wiki/2010_Wikimedia_design_and_feature_change">Help us find bugs and complete user interface translations.</a></div>
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60                                        </div>
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181<!-- /sitenotice --><!-- firstHeading -->       <h1 class="firstHeading" id="firstHeading">
182                Black hole</h1>
183<!-- /firstHeading --><!-- bodyContent -->      <div id="bodyContent" sizcache="0" sizset="0">
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185                        From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia</div>
186<!-- /tagline --><!-- subtitle -->              <div id="contentSub">
187                        &nbsp;</div>
188<!-- /subtitle --><!-- jumpto -->               <div id="jump-to-nav">
189                        Jump to: <a href="#mw-head">navigation</a>, <a href="#p-search">search</a></div>
190<!-- /jumpto --><!-- bodytext -->               <div class="dablink">
191                        For other uses, see <a href="/wiki/Black_hole_(disambiguation)" title="Black hole (disambiguation)">Black hole (disambiguation)</a>.</div>
192                <div class="metadata topicon" id="protected-icon" style="display: none; right: 55px">
193                        <a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Protection_policy#semi" title="This article is semi-protected."><img alt="Page semi-protected" height="20" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fa/Padlock-silver-medium.svg/20px-Padlock-silver-medium.svg.png" width="20" /></a></div>
194                <div class="thumb tright">
195                        <div class="thumbinner" style="width: 302px">
196                                <a class="image" href="/wiki/File:BH_LMC.png"><img alt="" class="thumbimage" height="240" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5e/BH_LMC.png/300px-BH_LMC.png" width="300" /></a>
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198                                        <div class="magnify">
199                                                <a class="internal" href="/wiki/File:BH_LMC.png" title="Enlarge"><img alt="" height="11" src="http://bits.wikimedia.org/skins-1.5/common/images/magnify-clip.png" width="15" /></a></div>
200                                        Simulated view of a black hole in front of the <a href="/wiki/Large_Magellanic_Cloud" title="Large Magellanic Cloud">Large Magellanic Cloud</a>. The ratio between the black hole <a href="/wiki/Schwarzschild_radius" title="Schwarzschild radius">Schwarzschild radius</a> and the observer distance to it is 1:9. Of note is the gravitational lensing effect known as an <a href="/wiki/Einstein_ring" title="Einstein ring">Einstein ring</a>, which produces a set of two fairly bright and large but highly distorted images of the Cloud as compared to its actual angular size.</div>
201                        </div>
202                </div>
203                <table class="infobox" style="text-align: center; width: 300px; float: right; clear: right; font-size: 90%">
204                        <tbody>
205                                <tr style="background: #87cefa">
206                                        <td>
207                                                <b><a href="/wiki/General_relativity" title="General relativity">General relativity</a></b></td>
208                                </tr>
209                                <tr>
210                                        <td>
211                                                <div style="padding-bottom: 4px; padding-top: 7px">
212                                                        <img alt="G_{\mu \nu} + \Lambda g_{\mu \nu}= {8\pi G\over c^4} T_{\mu \nu}" class="tex" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/math/b/3/f/b3f14edb49fd763ec19df7dcf1ff087e.png" /></div>
213                                        </td>
214                                </tr>
215                                <tr style="line-height: 150%; padding-top: 0px">
216                                        <td>
217                                                <small><a href="/wiki/Einstein_field_equations" title="Einstein field equations">Einstein field equations</a></small></td>
218                                </tr>
219                                <tr style="line-height: 150%">
220                                        <td>
221                                                <a href="/wiki/Introduction_to_general_relativity" title="Introduction to general relativity">Introduction</a><br />
222                                                <a href="/wiki/Mathematics_of_general_relativity" title="Mathematics of general relativity">Mathematical formulation</a><br />
223                                                <a class="mw-redirect" href="/wiki/General_relativity_resources" title="General relativity resources">Resources</a>
224                                                <table class="collapsible collapsed" id="collapsibleTable0" width="100%">
225                                                        <tbody>
226                                                                <tr>
227                                                                        <th style="text-align: left; background: #87cefa">
228                                                                                <span class="collapseButton">[<a href="#" id="collapseButton0">show</a>]</span>Fundamental concepts</th>
229                                                                </tr>
230                                                                <tr style="line-height: 150%; display: none">
231                                                                        <td>
232                                                                                <a href="/wiki/Special_relativity" title="Special relativity">Special relativity</a><br />
233                                                                                <a href="/wiki/Equivalence_principle" title="Equivalence principle">Equivalence principle</a><br />
234                                                                                <a href="/wiki/World_line" title="World line">World line</a> &middot; <a href="/wiki/Riemannian_geometry" title="Riemannian geometry">Riemannian geometry</a></td>
235                                                                </tr>
236                                                        </tbody>
237                                                </table>
238                                                <table class="collapsible" id="collapsibleTable1" width="100%">
239                                                        <tbody>
240                                                                <tr>
241                                                                        <th style="text-align: left; background: #87cefa">
242                                                                                <span class="collapseButton">[<a href="#" id="collapseButton1">hide</a>]</span>Phenomena</th>
243                                                                </tr>
244                                                                <tr style="line-height: 150%">
245                                                                        <td>
246                                                                                <a class="mw-redirect" href="/wiki/Kepler_problem_in_general_relativity" title="Kepler problem in general relativity">Kepler problem</a> &middot; <a href="/wiki/Gravitational_lens" title="Gravitational lens">Lenses</a> &middot; <a href="/wiki/Gravitational_wave" title="Gravitational wave">Waves</a><br />
247                                                                                <a href="/wiki/Frame-dragging" title="Frame-dragging">Frame-dragging</a> &middot; <a href="/wiki/Geodetic_effect" title="Geodetic effect">Geodetic effect</a><br />
248                                                                                <a href="/wiki/Event_horizon" title="Event horizon">Event horizon</a> &middot; <a href="/wiki/Gravitational_singularity" title="Gravitational singularity">Singularity</a><br />
249                                                                                <strong class="selflink">Black hole</strong></td>
250                                                                </tr>
251                                                        </tbody>
252                                                </table>
253                                                <table class="collapsible collapsed" id="collapsibleTable2" width="100%">
254                                                        <tbody>
255                                                                <tr>
256                                                                        <th style="text-align: left; background: #87cefa">
257                                                                                <span class="collapseButton">[<a href="#" id="collapseButton2">show</a>]</span>Equations</th>
258                                                                </tr>
259                                                                <tr style="line-height: 150%; display: none">
260                                                                        <td>
261                                                                                <a href="/wiki/Linearized_gravity" title="Linearized gravity">Linearized Gravity</a><br />
262                                                                                <a href="/wiki/Parameterized_post-Newtonian_formalism" title="Parameterized post-Newtonian formalism">Post-Newtonian formalism</a><br />
263                                                                                <a href="/wiki/Einstein_field_equations" title="Einstein field equations">Einstein field equations</a><br />
264                                                                                <a href="/wiki/Friedmann_equations" title="Friedmann equations">Friedmann equations</a><br />
265                                                                                <a href="/wiki/ADM_formalism" title="ADM formalism">ADM formalism</a><br />
266                                                                                <a href="/wiki/BSSN_formalism" title="BSSN formalism">BSSN formalism</a></td>
267                                                                </tr>
268                                                        </tbody>
269                                                </table>
270                                                <table class="collapsible collapsed" id="collapsibleTable3" width="100%">
271                                                        <tbody>
272                                                                <tr>
273                                                                        <th style="text-align: left; background: #87cefa">
274                                                                                <span class="collapseButton">[<a href="#" id="collapseButton3">show</a>]</span>Advanced theories</th>
275                                                                </tr>
276                                                                <tr style="line-height: 150%; display: none">
277                                                                        <td>
278                                                                                <a href="/wiki/Kaluza%E2%80%93Klein_theory" title="Kaluza–Klein theory">Kaluza&ndash;Klein</a><br />
279                                                                                <a href="/wiki/Quantum_gravity" title="Quantum gravity">Quantum gravity</a></td>
280                                                                </tr>
281                                                        </tbody>
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283                                                <table class="collapsible collapsed" id="collapsibleTable4" width="100%">
284                                                        <tbody>
285                                                                <tr>
286                                                                        <th style="text-align: left; background: #87cefa">
287                                                                                <span class="collapseButton">[<a href="#" id="collapseButton4">show</a>]</span><a href="/wiki/Exact_solutions_in_general_relativity" title="Exact solutions in general relativity">Solutions</a></th>
288                                                                </tr>
289                                                                <tr style="line-height: 150%; display: none">
290                                                                        <td>
291                                                                                <a href="/wiki/Schwarzschild_metric" title="Schwarzschild metric">Schwarzschild</a><br />
292                                                                                <a class="mw-redirect" href="/wiki/Reissner-Nordstr%C3%B6m_metric" title="Reissner-Nordström metric">Reissner-Nordstr&ouml;m</a><span style="font-weight: bold">&nbsp;&middot;</span> <a href="/wiki/G%C3%B6del_metric" title="Gödel metric">G&ouml;del</a><br />
293                                                                                <a href="/wiki/Kerr_metric" title="Kerr metric">Kerr</a><span style="font-weight: bold">&nbsp;&middot;</span> <a class="mw-redirect" href="/wiki/Kerr-Newman_metric" title="Kerr-Newman metric">Kerr-Newman</a><br />
294                                                                                <a href="/wiki/Kasner_metric" title="Kasner metric">Kasner</a><span style="font-weight: bold">&nbsp;&middot;</span> <a href="/wiki/Taub-NUT_vacuum" title="Taub-NUT vacuum">Taub-NUT</a><span style="font-weight: bold">&nbsp;&middot;</span> <a href="/wiki/Milne_model" title="Milne model">Milne</a><span style="font-weight: bold">&nbsp;&middot;</span> <a class="mw-redirect" href="/wiki/Friedmann-Lema%C3%AEtre-Robertson-Walker_metric" title="Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker metric">Robertson-Walker</a><br />
295                                                                                <a href="/wiki/Pp-wave_spacetime" title="Pp-wave spacetime">pp-wave</a></td>
296                                                                </tr>
297                                                        </tbody>
298                                                </table>
299                                                <table class="collapsible collapsed" id="collapsibleTable5" width="100%">
300                                                        <tbody>
301                                                                <tr>
302                                                                        <th style="text-align: left; background: #87cefa">
303                                                                                <span class="collapseButton">[<a href="#" id="collapseButton5">show</a>]</span>Scientists</th>
304                                                                </tr>
305                                                                <tr style="line-height: 150%; display: none">
306                                                                        <td>
307                                                                                <a href="/wiki/Albert_Einstein" title="Albert Einstein">Einstein</a> &middot; <a href="/wiki/Hermann_Minkowski" title="Hermann Minkowski">Minkowski</a> &middot; <a href="/wiki/Arthur_Stanley_Eddington" title="Arthur Stanley Eddington">Eddington</a><br />
308                                                                                <a href="/wiki/Georges_Lema%C3%AEtre" title="Georges Lemaître">Lema&icirc;tre</a> &middot; <a href="/wiki/Karl_Schwarzschild" title="Karl Schwarzschild">Schwarzschild</a><br />
309                                                                                <a href="/wiki/Howard_Percy_Robertson" title="Howard Percy Robertson">Robertson</a> &middot; <a href="/wiki/Roy_Kerr" title="Roy Kerr">Kerr</a> &middot; <a class="mw-redirect" href="/wiki/Alexander_Alexandrovich_Friedman" title="Alexander Alexandrovich Friedman">Friedman</a><br />
310                                                                                <a href="/wiki/Subrahmanyan_Chandrasekhar" title="Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar">Chandrasekhar</a> &middot; <a href="/wiki/Stephen_Hawking" title="Stephen Hawking">Hawking</a><br />
311                                                                                &middot; <a class="mw-redirect" href="/wiki/Contributors_to_General_relativity" title="Contributors to General relativity"><i>others</i></a></td>
312                                                                </tr>
313                                                        </tbody>
314                                                </table>
315                                        </td>
316                                </tr>
317                                <tr style="text-align: center">
318                                        <td>
319                                                <div class="noprint plainlinks navbar" style="padding-bottom: 0px; padding-left: 0px; padding-right: 0px; background: none transparent scroll repeat 0% 0%; font-size: xx-small; font-weight: normal; padding-top: 0px">
320                                                        <a href="/wiki/Template:General_relativity" title="Template:General relativity"><span title="View this template">v</span></a>&nbsp;<span style="font-size: 80%">&bull;</span>&nbsp;<a href="/wiki/Template_talk:General_relativity" title="Template talk:General relativity"><span title="Discuss this template">d</span></a>&nbsp;<span style="font-size: 80%">&bull;</span>&nbsp;<a class="external text" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:General_relativity&amp;action=edit" rel="nofollow"><span title="Edit this template">e</span></a></div>
321                                        </td>
322                                </tr>
323                        </tbody>
324                </table>
325                <p>
326                        A <b>black hole</b>, according to the <a href="/wiki/General_relativity" title="General relativity">general theory of relativity</a>, is a region of space from which nothing, including <a href="/wiki/Light" title="Light">light</a>, can escape. It is the result of the deformation of <a href="/wiki/Spacetime" title="Spacetime">spacetime</a> caused by a very compact <a href="/wiki/Mass" title="Mass">mass</a>. Around a black hole there is an undetectable surface which marks the point of no return, called an <a href="/wiki/Event_horizon" title="Event horizon">event horizon</a>. It is called &quot;black&quot; because it absorbs all the light that hits it, reflecting nothing, just like a perfect <a href="/wiki/Black_body" title="Black body">black body</a> in <a href="/wiki/Thermodynamics" title="Thermodynamics">thermodynamics</a>.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-0"><a href="#cite_note-0"><font size="2"><span>[</span>1<span>]</span></font></a></sup> Under the theory of <a href="/wiki/Quantum_mechanics" title="Quantum mechanics">quantum mechanics</a>, black holes possess a <a href="/wiki/Temperature" title="Temperature">temperature</a> and emit <a href="/wiki/Hawking_radiation" title="Hawking radiation">Hawking radiation</a>, but for black holes of stellar mass or larger this temperature is much lower than that of the cosmic background radiation.</p>
327                <p>
328                        Despite its invisible interior, a black hole can be observed through its interaction with other <a href="/wiki/Matter" title="Matter">matter</a>. A black hole can be inferred by tracking the movement of a group of <a href="/wiki/Star" title="Star">stars</a> that orbit a region in space. Alternatively, when gas falls into a <a href="/wiki/Stellar_black_hole" title="Stellar black hole">stellar black hole</a> from a <a href="/wiki/Binary_star" title="Binary star">companion star</a>, the gas spirals inward, heating to very high temperatures and emitting large amounts of <a href="/wiki/Radiation" title="Radiation">radiation</a> that can be detected from earthbound and Earth-orbiting <a href="/wiki/Telescope" title="Telescope">telescopes</a>.</p>
329                <p>
330                        Astronomers have identified numerous stellar black hole candidates, and have also found evidence of <a href="/wiki/Supermassive_black_hole" title="Supermassive black hole">supermassive black holes</a> at the center of <a href="/wiki/Galaxy" title="Galaxy">galaxies</a>. In 1998, astronomers found compelling evidence that a supermassive black hole of more than 2 million <a href="/wiki/Solar_mass" title="Solar mass">solar masses</a> is located near the <a href="/wiki/Sagittarius_A*" title="Sagittarius A*">Sagittarius A*</a> region in the center of the <a href="/wiki/Milky_Way" title="Milky Way">Milky Way</a> galaxy, and more recent results using additional data find evidence that the supermassive black hole is more than 4 million solar masses.</p>
331                <div class="toclimit-3" sizcache="0" sizset="0">
332                        <table class="toc" id="toc" sizcache="0" sizset="0">
333                                <tbody sizcache="0" sizset="0">
334                                        <tr sizcache="0" sizset="0">
335                                                <td sizcache="0" sizset="0">
336                                                        <div id="toctitle">
337                                                                <h2>
338                                                                        Contents</h2>
339                                                                <span class="toctoggle">[<a class="internal" href="#" id="togglelink">hide</a>]</span></div>
340                                                        <ul sizcache="0" sizset="1">
341                                                                <li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-1" sizcache="0" sizset="1">
342                                                                        <a href="#History"><span class="tocnumber">1</span> <span class="toctext">History</span></a>
343                                                                        <ul>
344                                                                                <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-2">
345                                                                                        <a href="#General_relativity"><span class="tocnumber">1.1</span> <span class="toctext">General relativity</span></a></li>
346                                                                                <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-3">
347                                                                                        <a href="#Golden_age"><span class="tocnumber">1.2</span> <span class="toctext">Golden age</span></a></li>
348                                                                        </ul>
349                                                                </li>
350                                                                <li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-4" sizcache="0" sizset="2">
351                                                                        <a href="#Properties_and_structure"><span class="tocnumber">2</span> <span class="toctext">Properties and structure</span></a>
352                                                                        <ul>
353                                                                                <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-5">
354                                                                                        <a href="#Physical_properties"><span class="tocnumber">2.1</span> <span class="toctext">Physical properties</span></a></li>
355                                                                                <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-6">
356                                                                                        <a href="#Event_horizon"><span class="tocnumber">2.2</span> <span class="toctext">Event horizon</span></a></li>
357                                                                                <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-7">
358                                                                                        <a href="#Singularity"><span class="tocnumber">2.3</span> <span class="toctext">Singularity</span></a></li>
359                                                                                <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-8">
360                                                                                        <a href="#Photon_sphere"><span class="tocnumber">2.4</span> <span class="toctext">Photon sphere</span></a></li>
361                                                                                <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-9">
362                                                                                        <a href="#Ergosphere"><span class="tocnumber">2.5</span> <span class="toctext">Ergosphere</span></a></li>
363                                                                        </ul>
364                                                                </li>
365                                                                <li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-10" sizcache="0" sizset="3">
366                                                                        <a href="#Formation_and_evolution"><span class="tocnumber">3</span> <span class="toctext">Formation and evolution</span></a>
367                                                                        <ul sizcache="0" sizset="4">
368                                                                                <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-11" sizcache="0" sizset="4">
369                                                                                        <a href="#Gravitational_collapse"><span class="tocnumber">3.1</span> <span class="toctext">Gravitational collapse</span></a>
370                                                                                        <ul>
371                                                                                                <li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-12">
372                                                                                                        <a href="#Primordial_black_holes_in_the_Big_Bang"><span class="tocnumber">3.1.1</span> <span class="toctext">Primordial black holes in the Big Bang</span></a></li>
373                                                                                        </ul>
374                                                                                </li>
375                                                                                <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-13">
376                                                                                        <a href="#High_energy_collisions"><span class="tocnumber">3.2</span> <span class="toctext">High energy collisions</span></a></li>
377                                                                                <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-14">
378                                                                                        <a href="#Growth"><span class="tocnumber">3.3</span> <span class="toctext">Growth</span></a></li>
379                                                                                <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-15">
380                                                                                        <a href="#Evaporation"><span class="tocnumber">3.4</span> <span class="toctext">Evaporation</span></a></li>
381                                                                        </ul>
382                                                                </li>
383                                                                <li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-16" sizcache="0" sizset="5">
384                                                                        <a href="#Observational_evidence"><span class="tocnumber">4</span> <span class="toctext">Observational evidence</span></a>
385                                                                        <ul sizcache="0" sizset="6">
386                                                                                <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-17">
387                                                                                        <a href="#Accretion_of_matter"><span class="tocnumber">4.1</span> <span class="toctext">Accretion of matter</span></a></li>
388                                                                                <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-18" sizcache="0" sizset="6">
389                                                                                        <a href="#X-ray_binaries"><span class="tocnumber">4.2</span> <span class="toctext">X-ray binaries</span></a>
390                                                                                        <ul>
391                                                                                                <li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-19">
392                                                                                                        <a href="#Quiescence_and_advection-dominated_accretion_flow"><span class="tocnumber">4.2.1</span> <span class="toctext">Quiescence and advection-dominated accretion flow</span></a></li>
393                                                                                                <li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-20">
394                                                                                                        <a href="#Quasi-periodic_oscillations"><span class="tocnumber">4.2.2</span> <span class="toctext">Quasi-periodic oscillations</span></a></li>
395                                                                                        </ul>
396                                                                                </li>
397                                                                                <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-21">
398                                                                                        <a href="#Gamma_ray_bursts"><span class="tocnumber">4.3</span> <span class="toctext">Gamma ray bursts</span></a></li>
399                                                                                <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-22">
400                                                                                        <a href="#Galactic_nuclei"><span class="tocnumber">4.4</span> <span class="toctext">Galactic nuclei</span></a></li>
401                                                                                <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-23">
402                                                                                        <a href="#Gravitational_lensing"><span class="tocnumber">4.5</span> <span class="toctext">Gravitational lensing</span></a></li>
403                                                                                <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-24">
404                                                                                        <a href="#Alternatives"><span class="tocnumber">4.6</span> <span class="toctext">Alternatives</span></a></li>
405                                                                        </ul>
406                                                                </li>
407                                                                <li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-25" sizcache="0" sizset="7">
408                                                                        <a href="#Open_questions"><span class="tocnumber">5</span> <span class="toctext">Open questions</span></a>
409                                                                        <ul>
410                                                                                <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-26">
411                                                                                        <a href="#Entropy_and_Hawking_radiation"><span class="tocnumber">5.1</span> <span class="toctext">Entropy and Hawking radiation</span></a></li>
412                                                                                <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-27">
413                                                                                        <a href="#Black_hole_unitarity"><span class="tocnumber">5.2</span> <span class="toctext">Black hole unitarity</span></a></li>
414                                                                        </ul>
415                                                                </li>
416                                                                <li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-28">
417                                                                        <a href="#See_also"><span class="tocnumber">6</span> <span class="toctext">See also</span></a></li>
418                                                                <li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-29">
419                                                                        <a href="#Notes"><span class="tocnumber">7</span> <span class="toctext">Notes</span></a></li>
420                                                                <li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-30">
421                                                                        <a href="#References"><span class="tocnumber">8</span> <span class="toctext">References</span></a></li>
422                                                                <li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-31">
423                                                                        <a href="#Further_reading"><span class="tocnumber">9</span> <span class="toctext">Further reading</span></a></li>
424                                                                <li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-32">
425                                                                        <a href="#External_links"><span class="tocnumber">10</span> <span class="toctext">External links</span></a></li>
426                                                        </ul>
427                                                </td>
428                                        </tr>
429                                </tbody>
430                        </table>
431<SCRIPT type=text/javascript>
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436                <h2>
437                        <span class="mw-headline" id="History">History</span></h2>
438                <div class="thumb tright">
439                        <div class="thumbinner" style="width: 242px">
440                                <a class="image" href="/wiki/File:Black_hole_lensing_web.gif"><img alt="Schwarzschild black hole" class="thumbimage" height="192" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/03/Black_hole_lensing_web.gif" width="240" /></a>
441                                <div class="thumbcaption">
442                                        Simulation of <a class="mw-redirect" href="/wiki/Gravitational_lensing" title="Gravitational lensing">gravitational lensing</a> by a black hole which distorts the image of a <a href="/wiki/Galaxy" title="Galaxy">galaxy</a> in the background. (<a href="/wiki/File:BlackHole_Lensing.gif" title="File:BlackHole Lensing.gif">Click for larger animation.</a>)</div>
443                        </div>
444                </div>
445                <p>
446                        The idea of a body so massive that even light could not escape was first put forward by <a href="/wiki/Geologist" title="Geologist">geologist</a> <a href="/wiki/John_Michell" title="John Michell">John Michell</a> in a letter written to <a href="/wiki/Henry_Cavendish" title="Henry Cavendish">Henry Cavendish</a> in 1783 to the <a href="/wiki/Royal_Society" title="Royal Society">Royal Society</a>:</p>
447                <blockquote class="templatequote">
448                        <div>
449                                If the semi-diameter of a sphere of the same density as the Sun were to exceed that of the Sun in the proportion of 500 to 1, a body falling from an infinite height towards it would have acquired at its surface greater velocity than that of light, and consequently supposing light to be attracted by the same force in proportion to its vis inertiae, with other bodies, all light emitted from such a body would be made to return towards it by its own proper gravity.</div>
450                        <div class="templatequotecite">
451                                &mdash;John Michell<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-Michell1784_1-0"><a href="#cite_note-Michell1784-1"><font size="2"><span>[</span>2<span>]</span></font></a></sup></div>
452                </blockquote>
453                <p>
454                        In 1796, mathematician <a href="/wiki/Pierre-Simon_Laplace" title="Pierre-Simon Laplace">Pierre-Simon Laplace</a> promoted the same idea in the first and second editions of his book <i>Exposition du syst&egrave;me du Monde</i> (it was removed from later editions).<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-2"><a href="#cite_note-2"><font size="2"><span>[</span>3<span>]</span></font></a></sup><sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-3"><a href="#cite_note-3"><font size="2"><span>[</span>4<span>]</span></font></a></sup> Such &quot;<a href="/wiki/Dark_star_(Newtonian_mechanics)" title="Dark star (Newtonian mechanics)">dark stars</a>&quot; were largely ignored in the nineteenth century, since it was then thought that a massless wave such as light could not be influenced by gravity.</p>
455                <h3>
456                        <span class="mw-headline" id="General_relativity">General relativity</span></h3>
457                <p>
458                        In 1915, <a href="/wiki/Albert_Einstein" title="Albert Einstein">Albert Einstein</a> developed his general theory of relativity, having earlier shown that gravity does influence light&#39;s motion. A few months later, <a href="/wiki/Karl_Schwarzschild" title="Karl Schwarzschild">Karl Schwarzschild</a> gave the <a href="/wiki/Schwarzschild_metric" title="Schwarzschild metric">solution</a> for the gravitational field of a point mass and a spherical mass.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-Schwarzschild1916_4-0"><a href="#cite_note-Schwarzschild1916-4"><font size="2"><span>[</span>5<span>]</span></font></a></sup> Johannes Droste, a student of <a href="/wiki/Hendrik_Lorentz" title="Hendrik Lorentz">Hendrik Lorentz</a>, independently gave the same solution for the point mass a few months after Schwarzschild and wrote more extensively about its properties.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-5"><a href="#cite_note-5"><font size="2"><span>[</span>6<span>]</span></font></a></sup> This solution had a peculiar behaviour at what is now called the <a href="/wiki/Schwarzschild_radius" title="Schwarzschild radius">Schwarzschild radius</a>, where it became <a href="/wiki/Mathematical_singularity" title="Mathematical singularity">singular</a>, meaning that some of the terms in the Einstein equations became infinite. The nature of this surface was not quite understood at the time. In 1924, <a class="mw-redirect" href="/wiki/Arthur_Eddington" title="Arthur Eddington">Arthur Eddington</a> showed that the singularity disappeared after a change of coordinates (see <a class="mw-redirect" href="/wiki/Eddington_coordinates" title="Eddington coordinates">Eddington coordinates</a>), although it took until 1933 for <a href="/wiki/Georges_Lema%C3%AEtre" title="Georges Lemaître">Georges Lema&icirc;tre</a> to realize that this meant the singularity at the Schwarzschild radius was an unphysical coordinate singularity.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-HooftHist_6-0"><a href="#cite_note-HooftHist-6"><font size="2"><span>[</span>7<span>]</span></font></a></sup></p>
459                <p>
460                        In 1931, <a class="mw-redirect" href="/wiki/Astrophysicist" title="Astrophysicist">astrophysicist</a> <a href="/wiki/Subrahmanyan_Chandrasekhar" title="Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar">Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar</a> calculated, using general relativity, that a non-rotating body of <a class="mw-redirect" href="/wiki/Electron-degenerate_matter" title="Electron-degenerate matter">electron-degenerate matter</a> above 1.44 solar masses (the <a href="/wiki/Chandrasekhar_limit" title="Chandrasekhar limit">Chandrasekhar limit</a>) would collapse. His arguments were opposed by many of his contemporaries like Arthur Eddington and <a href="/wiki/Lev_Landau" title="Lev Landau">Lev Landau</a>, who argued that some yet unknown mechanism would stop the collapse.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-7"><a href="#cite_note-7"><font size="2"><span>[</span>8<span>]</span></font></a></sup> They were partly correct: a <a href="/wiki/White_dwarf" title="White dwarf">white dwarf</a> slightly more massive than the Chandrasekhar limit will collapse into a <a href="/wiki/Neutron_star" title="Neutron star">neutron star</a>, which is itself stable because of the <a href="/wiki/Pauli_exclusion_principle" title="Pauli exclusion principle">Pauli exclusion principle</a>. But in 1939, <a class="mw-redirect" href="/wiki/Robert_Oppenheimer" title="Robert Oppenheimer">Robert Oppenheimer</a> and others predicted that neutron stars above approximately three solar masses (the <a class="mw-redirect" href="/wiki/Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff_limit" title="Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff limit">Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff limit</a>) would collapse into black holes for the reasons presented by Chandrasekhar, and concluded that no law of physics was likely to intervene and stop at least some stars from collapsing to black holes.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-8"><a href="#cite_note-8"><font size="2"><span>[</span>9<span>]</span></font></a></sup></p>
461                <p>
462                        Oppenheimer and his co-authors interpreted the singularity at the boundary of the Schwarzschild radius as indicating that this was the boundary of a bubble in which time stopped. This is a valid point of view for external observers, but not for infalling observers. Because of this property, the collapsed stars were called &quot;frozen stars,&quot;<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-9"><a href="#cite_note-9"><font size="2"><span>[</span>10<span>]</span></font></a></sup> because an outside observer would see the surface of the star frozen in time at the instant where its collapse takes it inside the Schwarzschild radius. This is a known property of modern black holes, but it must be emphasized that the light from the surface of the frozen star becomes redshifted very fast, turning the black hole black very quickly. Many physicists could not accept the idea of time standing still at the Schwarzschild radius, and there was little interest in the subject for over 20 years.</p>
463                <h3>
464                        <span class="mw-headline" id="Golden_age">Golden age</span></h3>
465                <div class="rellink boilerplate seealso">
466                        See also: <a href="/wiki/Golden_age_of_general_relativity" title="Golden age of general relativity">Golden age of general relativity</a></div>
467                <p>
468                        In 1958, <a href="/wiki/David_Finkelstein" title="David Finkelstein">David Finkelstein</a> introduced the concept of the <a href="/wiki/Event_horizon" title="Event horizon">event horizon</a> by presenting <a class="mw-redirect" href="/wiki/Eddington-Finkelstein_coordinates" title="Eddington-Finkelstein coordinates">Eddington-Finkelstein coordinates</a>, which enabled him to show that &quot;The Schwarzschild surface <span style="white-space: nowrap"><i>r</i> = 2<i>m</i></span> [in <a class="mw-redirect" href="/wiki/Geometrized_units" title="Geometrized units">geometrized units</a>, i.e. 2<i>Gm</i>/<i>c</i><sup><font size="2">2</font></sup>] is not a singularity, but that it acts as a perfect unidirectional membrane: causal influences can cross it in only one direction&quot;.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-10"><a href="#cite_note-10"><font size="2"><span>[</span>11<span>]</span></font></a></sup> This did not strictly contradict Oppenheimer&#39;s results, but extended them to include the point of view of infalling observers.</p>
469                <p>
470                        Finkelstein&#39;s results came at the beginning of the <a href="/wiki/Golden_age_of_general_relativity" title="Golden age of general relativity">golden age of general relativity</a>, which is marked by general relativity and black holes becoming mainstream subjects of research. This process was helped by the discovery of <a class="mw-redirect" href="/wiki/Pulsars" title="Pulsars">pulsars</a> in 1967,<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-11"><a href="#cite_note-11"><font size="2"><span>[</span>12<span>]</span></font></a></sup><sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-12"><a href="#cite_note-12"><font size="2"><span>[</span>13<span>]</span></font></a></sup> which were within a few years shown to be rapidly rotating <a href="/wiki/Neutron_star" title="Neutron star">neutron stars</a>. Until that time, neutron stars, like black holes, were regarded as just theoretical curiosities. But the discovery of pulsars showed their physical relevance and spurred a further interest in all types of compact objects that might be formed by gravitational collapse.</p>
471                <p>
472                        In this period more general black hole solutions where found. In 1963, <a href="/wiki/Roy_Kerr" title="Roy Kerr">Roy Kerr</a> found the exact solution for a <a href="/wiki/Rotating_black_hole" title="Rotating black hole">rotating black hole</a>. Two years later <a href="/wiki/Ezra_T._Newman" title="Ezra T. Newman">Ezra T. Newman</a> found the axisymmetric solution for a black hole which is both rotating and electrically charged.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-13"><a href="#cite_note-13"><font size="2"><span>[</span>14<span>]</span></font></a></sup> Through the work of <a href="/wiki/Werner_Israel" title="Werner Israel">Werner Israel</a>,<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-14"><a href="#cite_note-14"><font size="2"><span>[</span>15<span>]</span></font></a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Brandon_Carter" title="Brandon Carter">Brandon Carter</a>,<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-15"><a href="#cite_note-15"><font size="2"><span>[</span>16<span>]</span></font></a></sup><sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-16"><a href="#cite_note-16"><font size="2"><span>[</span>17<span>]</span></font></a></sup> and <a class="new" href="/w/index.php?title=D._C._Robinson&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" title="D. C. Robinson (page does not exist)">D. C. Robinson</a><sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-17"><a href="#cite_note-17"><font size="2"><span>[</span>18<span>]</span></font></a></sup> the <a href="/wiki/No-hair_theorem" title="No-hair theorem">no-hair theorem</a> emerged, stating that a stationary black hole solution is completely described by the three parameters of the <a href="/wiki/Kerr%E2%80%93Newman_metric" title="Kerr–Newman metric">Kerr&ndash;Newman metric</a>; <a href="/wiki/Mass" title="Mass">mass</a>, <a href="/wiki/Angular_momentum" title="Angular momentum">angular momentum</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Electric_charge" title="Electric charge">electric charge</a>.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-HeuslerNoHair_18-0"><a href="#cite_note-HeuslerNoHair-18"><font size="2"><span>[</span>19<span>]</span></font></a></sup></p>
473                <p>
474                        For a long time, it was suspected that the strange features of the black hole solutions were pathological artefacts from the symmetry conditions imposed, and that the singularities would not appear in generic situations. This view was held in particular by <a class="mw-redirect" href="/wiki/Vladimir_A._Belinsky" title="Vladimir A. Belinsky">Belinsky</a>, <a href="/wiki/Isaak_Markovich_Khalatnikov" title="Isaak Markovich Khalatnikov">Khalatnikov</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Evgeny_Lifshitz" title="Evgeny Lifshitz">Lifshitz</a>, who tried to prove that no singularities appear in generic solutions. However, in the late sixties <a href="/wiki/Roger_Penrose" title="Roger Penrose">Roger Penrose</a><sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-penrose1965_19-0"><a href="#cite_note-penrose1965-19"><font size="2"><span>[</span>20<span>]</span></font></a></sup> and <a href="/wiki/Stephen_Hawking" title="Stephen Hawking">Stephen Hawking</a> use global techniques to prove that singularities are generic.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-20"><a href="#cite_note-20"><font size="2"><span>[</span>21<span>]</span></font></a></sup></p>
475                <p>
476                        Work by <a href="/wiki/James_M._Bardeen" title="James M. Bardeen">James Bardeen</a>, <a href="/wiki/Jacob_Bekenstein" title="Jacob Bekenstein">Jacob Bekenstein</a>, Carter, and Hawking in the early 1970s led to the formulation of the <a class="mw-redirect" href="/wiki/Laws_of_black_hole_mechanics" title="Laws of black hole mechanics">laws of black hole mechanics</a>.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-21"><a href="#cite_note-21"><font size="2"><span>[</span>22<span>]</span></font></a></sup> These laws describe the behaviour of a black hole in close analogy to the <a href="/wiki/Laws_of_thermodynamics" title="Laws of thermodynamics">laws of thermodynamics</a> by relating mass to energy, area to <a href="/wiki/Entropy" title="Entropy">entropy</a> and <a href="/wiki/Surface_gravity" title="Surface gravity">surface gravity</a> to <a href="/wiki/Temperature" title="Temperature">temperature</a>. The analogy is completed when Hawking, in 1974, shows that <a href="/wiki/Quantum_field_theory" title="Quantum field theory">quantum field theory</a> predicts that black holes should radiate like a <a href="/wiki/Black_body" title="Black body">black body</a> with a temperature proportional to the <a href="/wiki/Surface_gravity" title="Surface gravity">surface gravity</a> of the black hole.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-Hawking1974_22-0"><a href="#cite_note-Hawking1974-22"><font size="2"><span>[</span>23<span>]</span></font></a></sup></p>
477                <p>
478                        The term &quot;black hole&quot; was first publicly used by <a href="/wiki/John_Archibald_Wheeler" title="John Archibald Wheeler">John Wheeler</a> during a lecture in 1967. Although he is usually credited with coining the phrase, he always insisted that it was suggested to him by somebody else. The first recorded use of the term is in a 1964 letter by Anne Ewing to the <a href="/wiki/American_Association_for_the_Advancement_of_Science" title="American Association for the Advancement of Science">AAAS</a>.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-23"><a href="#cite_note-23"><font size="2"><span>[</span>24<span>]</span></font></a></sup> After Wheeler&#39;s use of the term, it was quickly adopted in general use. However, the term itself has been subject of <a href="/wiki/Black_hole_naming_controversies" title="Black hole naming controversies">racial controversy</a> for some.</p>
479                <h2>
480                        <span class="mw-headline" id="Properties_and_structure">Properties and structure</span></h2>
481                <p>
482                        The <a class="mw-redirect" href="/wiki/No_hair_theorem" title="No hair theorem">no hair theorem</a> states that, once it achieves a stable condition after formation, a black hole has only three independent physical properties: <a href="/wiki/Mass" title="Mass">mass</a>, <a href="/wiki/Electric_charge" title="Electric charge">charge</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Angular_momentum" title="Angular momentum">angular momentum</a>.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-HeuslerNoHair_18-1"><a href="#cite_note-HeuslerNoHair-18"><font size="2"><span>[</span>19<span>]</span></font></a></sup> Any two black holes that share the same values for these properties, or parameters, are classically indistinguishable.</p>
483                <p>
484                        These properties are special because they are visible from outside the black hole. For example, a charged black hole repels other like charges just like any other charged object. Similarly, the total mass inside a sphere containing a black hole can be found by using the gravitational analog of <a href="/wiki/Gauss%27s_law" title="Gauss's law">Gauss&#39;s law</a>, the <a class="mw-redirect" href="/wiki/ADM_mass" title="ADM mass">ADM mass</a>, far away from the black hole.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-24"><a href="#cite_note-24"><font size="2"><span>[</span>25<span>]</span></font></a></sup> Likewise, the angular momentum can be measured from far away using <a class="mw-redirect" href="/wiki/Frame_dragging" title="Frame dragging">frame dragging</a> by the gravitomagnetic field.</p>
485                <p>
486                        When an object falls into a black hole, any information about the shape of the object or distribution of charge on it is evenly distributed along the horizon of the black hole, and is lost to outside observers. The behavior of the horizon in this situation is closely analogous to that of a conductive stretchy membrane with friction and <a href="/wiki/Electrical_resistance" title="Electrical resistance">electrical resistance</a>, a <a href="/wiki/Dissipative_system" title="Dissipative system">dissipative system</a> (see <a href="/wiki/Membrane_paradigm" title="Membrane paradigm">membrane paradigm</a>).<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-25"><a href="#cite_note-25"><font size="2"><span>[</span>26<span>]</span></font></a></sup> This is different from other field theories like electromagnetism, which does not have any friction or resistivity at the microscopic level, because they are <a href="/wiki/T-symmetry" title="T-symmetry">time-reversible</a>. Because the black hole eventually achieves a stable state with only three parameters, there is no way to avoid losing information about the initial conditions: the gravitational and electric fields of the black hole give very little information about what went in. The information that is lost includes every quantity that cannot be measured far away from the black hole horizon, including the total <a href="/wiki/Baryon_number" title="Baryon number">baryon number</a>, <a href="/wiki/Lepton_number" title="Lepton number">lepton number</a>, and all the other nearly conserved pseudo-charges of particle physics. This behavior is so puzzling that it has been called the <a class="mw-redirect" href="/wiki/Black_hole_information_loss_paradox" title="Black hole information loss paradox">black hole information loss paradox</a>.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-26"><a href="#cite_note-26"><font size="2"><span>[</span>27<span>]</span></font></a></sup><sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-27"><a href="#cite_note-27"><font size="2"><span>[</span>28<span>]</span></font></a></sup><sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-28"><a href="#cite_note-28"><font size="2"><span>[</span>29<span>]</span></font></a></sup></p>
487                <h3>
488                        <span class="mw-headline" id="Physical_properties">Physical properties</span></h3>
489                <p>
490                        The simplest black hole has mass but neither charge nor angular momentum. These black holes are often referred to as <a href="/wiki/Schwarzschild_metric" title="Schwarzschild metric">Schwarzschild black holes</a> after the physicist <a href="/wiki/Karl_Schwarzschild" title="Karl Schwarzschild">Karl Schwarzschild</a> who discovered this <a href="/wiki/Solutions_of_the_Einstein_field_equations" title="Solutions of the Einstein field equations">solution</a> in 1915.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-Schwarzschild1916_4-1"><a href="#cite_note-Schwarzschild1916-4"><font size="2"><span>[</span>5<span>]</span></font></a></sup> According to <a href="/wiki/Birkhoff%27s_theorem_(relativity)" title="Birkhoff's theorem (relativity)">Birkhoff&#39;s theorem</a>, it is the only <a href="/wiki/Vacuum_solution_(general_relativity)" title="Vacuum solution (general relativity)">vacuum solution</a> that is <a href="/wiki/Spherically_symmetric_spacetime" title="Spherically symmetric spacetime">spherically symmetric</a>.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-29"><a href="#cite_note-29"><font size="2"><span>[</span>30<span>]</span></font></a></sup> This means that there is no observable difference between the gravitational field of such a black hole and that of any other spherical object of the same mass. The popular notion of a black hole &quot;sucking in everything&quot; in its surroundings is therefore only correct near the black hole horizon; far away, the external gravitational field is identical to that of any other body of the same mass.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-30"><a href="#cite_note-30"><font size="2"><span>[</span>31<span>]</span></font></a></sup></p>
491                <p>
492                        Solutions describing more general black holes also exist. <a href="/wiki/Charged_black_hole" title="Charged black hole">Charged black holes</a> are described by the <a class="mw-redirect" href="/wiki/Reissner-Nordstr%C3%B6m_metric" title="Reissner-Nordström metric">Reissner-Nordstr&ouml;m metric</a>, while the <a href="/wiki/Kerr_metric" title="Kerr metric">Kerr metric</a> describes a <a href="/wiki/Rotating_black_hole" title="Rotating black hole">rotating black hole</a>. The most general <a href="/wiki/Stationary_spacetime" title="Stationary spacetime">stationary</a> black hole solution known is the <a class="mw-redirect" href="/wiki/Kerr-Newman_metric" title="Kerr-Newman metric">Kerr-Newman metric</a>, which describes a black hole with both charge and angular momentum.</p>
493                <p>
494                        While the mass of a black hole can take any positive value, the charge and angular momentum are constrained by the mass. In <a href="/wiki/Planck_units" title="Planck units">Planck units</a>, the total charge <i>Q</i> and the total angular momentum <i>J</i> are expected to satisfy</p>
495                <dl>
496                        <dd>
497                                <img alt="Q^2+\left ( \tfrac{J}{M} \right )^2\le M^2\, " class="tex" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/math/2/8/f/28f1ea97409e8b5faa14b70e275de4ad.png" /></dd>
498                </dl>
499                <p>
500                        for a black hole of mass <i>M</i>. Black holes saturating this inequality are called <a href="/wiki/Extremal_black_hole" title="Extremal black hole">extremal</a>. Solutions of Einstein&#39;s equations violating the inequality exist, but do not have a horizon. These solutions have <a href="/wiki/Naked_singularity" title="Naked singularity">naked singularities</a> and are deemed <i>unphysical</i>. The <a href="/wiki/Cosmic_censorship_hypothesis" title="Cosmic censorship hypothesis">cosmic censorship hypothesis</a> rules out the formation of such singularities through the gravitational collapse of <a class="mw-redirect" href="/wiki/Energy_conditions" title="Energy conditions">realistic matter</a>.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-31"><a href="#cite_note-31"><font size="2"><span>[</span>32<span>]</span></font></a></sup> This is supported by numerical simulations.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-32"><a href="#cite_note-32"><font size="2"><span>[</span>33<span>]</span></font></a></sup></p>
501                <p>
502                        Due to the relatively large strength of the <a href="/wiki/Electromagnetism" title="Electromagnetism">electromagnetic force</a>, black holes forming from the collapse of stars are expected to retain the nearly neutral charge of the star. Rotation, however, is expected to be a common feature of compact objects, and the black-hole candidate binary X-ray source <a href="/wiki/GRS_1915%2B105" title="GRS 1915+105">GRS 1915+105</a><sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-33"><a href="#cite_note-33"><font size="2"><span>[</span>34<span>]</span></font></a></sup> appears to have an angular momentum near the maximum allowed value.</p>
503                <table class="wikitable" style="margin: 0em 0em 0.5em 1em; float: right">
504                        <tbody>
505                                <tr>
506                                        <th>
507                                                Class</th>
508                                        <th>
509                                                Mass</th>
510                                        <th>
511                                                Size</th>
512                                </tr>
513                                <tr>
514                                        <td>
515                                                <a href="/wiki/Supermassive_black_hole" title="Supermassive black hole">Supermassive black hole</a></td>
516                                        <td style="text-align: center">
517                                                ~10<sup>5</sup>&ndash;10<sup>9</sup> M<sub><a href="/wiki/Sun" title="Sun">Sun</a></sub></td>
518                                        <td style="text-align: center">
519                                                ~0.001&ndash;10 <a href="/wiki/Astronomical_unit" title="Astronomical unit">AU</a></td>
520                                </tr>
521                                <tr>
522                                        <td>
523                                                <a href="/wiki/Intermediate-mass_black_hole" title="Intermediate-mass black hole">Intermediate-mass black hole</a></td>
524                                        <td style="text-align: center">
525                                                ~10<sup>3</sup> M<sub>Sun</sub></td>
526                                        <td style="text-align: center">
527                                                ~10<sup>3</sup> km = R<sub><a href="/wiki/Earth" title="Earth">Earth</a></sub></td>
528                                </tr>
529                                <tr>
530                                        <td>
531                                                <a href="/wiki/Stellar_black_hole" title="Stellar black hole">Stellar black hole</a></td>
532                                        <td style="text-align: center">
533                                                ~10 M<sub>Sun</sub></td>
534                                        <td style="text-align: center">
535                                                ~30&nbsp;km</td>
536                                </tr>
537                                <tr>
538                                        <td>
539                                                <a href="/wiki/Micro_black_hole" title="Micro black hole">Micro black hole</a></td>
540                                        <td style="text-align: center">
541                                                up to ~M<sub><a href="/wiki/Moon" title="Moon">Moon</a></sub></td>
542                                        <td style="text-align: center">
543                                                up to ~0.1&nbsp;mm</td>
544                                </tr>
545                        </tbody>
546                </table>
547                <p>
548                        Black holes are commonly classified according to their mass, independent of angular momentum <i>J</i> or electric charge <i>Q</i>. The size of a black hole, as determined by the radius of the event horizon, or <a href="/wiki/Schwarzschild_radius" title="Schwarzschild radius">Schwarzschild radius</a>, is roughly proportional to the mass <i>M</i> through</p>
549                <dl>
550                        <dd>
551                                <img alt="r_{sh} =\frac{2GM}{c^2} \approx 2.95\, M/M_{Sun} \;\mathrm{km,}" class="tex" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/math/7/7/6/7769170db5609b670dd4439041b8ca7f.png" /></dd>
552                </dl>
553                <p>
554                        where <i>r</i><sub><font size="2">sh</font></sub> is the Schwarzschild radius and M<sub><font size="2">Sun</font></sub> is the <a href="/wiki/Solar_mass" title="Solar mass">mass of the Sun</a>. This relation is exact only for black holes with zero charge and angular momentum, for more general black holes it can differ up to a factor of 2. The table on the right lists the various classes of black hole that are distinguished.</p>
555                <h3>
556                        <span class="mw-headline" id="Event_horizon">Event horizon</span></h3>
557                <div class="rellink relarticle mainarticle">
558                        Main article: <a href="/wiki/Event_horizon" title="Event horizon">Event horizon</a></div>
559                <table class="wikitable" style="margin: 1ex; width: 400px; float: right">
560                        <tbody>
561                                <tr>
562                                        <td>
563                                                <a class="image" href="/wiki/File:BH-no-escape-1.svg" title="Image:BH-no-escape-1.svg"><img alt="Image:BH-no-escape-1.svg" height="106" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/55/BH-no-escape-1.svg/409px-BH-no-escape-1.svg.png" width="409" /></a><br />
564                                                Far away from the black hole a particle can move in any direction. It is only restricted by the speed of light.</td>
565                                </tr>
566                                <tr>
567                                        <td>
568                                                <a class="image" href="/wiki/File:BH-no-escape-2.svg" title="Image:BH-no-escape-2.svg"><img alt="Image:BH-no-escape-2.svg" height="106" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/10/BH-no-escape-2.svg/409px-BH-no-escape-2.svg.png" width="409" /></a><br />
569                                                Closer to the black hole spacetime starts to deform. There are more paths going towards the black hole than paths moving away.</td>
570                                </tr>
571                                <tr>
572                                        <td>
573                                                <a class="image" href="/wiki/File:BH-no-escape-3.svg" title="Image:BH-no-escape-3.svg"><img alt="Image:BH-no-escape-3.svg" height="106" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/87/BH-no-escape-3.svg/409px-BH-no-escape-3.svg.png" width="409" /></a><br />
574                                                Inside of the event horizon all paths bring the particle closer to the center of the black hole. It is no longer possible for the particle to escape.</td>
575                                </tr>
576                        </tbody>
577                </table>
578                <p>
579                        The defining feature of a black hole is the appearance of an event horizon&mdash;a boundary in <a href="/wiki/Spacetime" title="Spacetime">spacetime</a> through which matter and light can only pass inward towards the mass of the black hole. Nothing, including light, can escape from inside the event horizon. The event horizon is referred to as such because if an event occurs within the boundary, information from that event cannot reach an outside observer, making it impossible to determine if such an event occurred.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-34"><a href="#cite_note-34"><font size="2"><span>[</span>35<span>]</span></font></a></sup></p>
580                <p>
581                        As predicted by general relativity, the presence of a large mass deforms spacetime in such a way that the paths particles take bend towards the mass. At the event horizon of a black hole, this deformation becomes so strong that there are no paths that lead away from the black hole.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-35"><a href="#cite_note-35"><font size="2"><span>[</span>36<span>]</span></font></a></sup></p>
582                <p>
583                        To a distant observer, clocks near a black hole appear to tick more slowly than those further away from the black hole.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-36"><a href="#cite_note-36"><font size="2"><span>[</span>37<span>]</span></font></a></sup> Due to this effect, known as <a href="/wiki/Gravitational_time_dilation" title="Gravitational time dilation">gravitational time dilation</a>, an object falling into a black hole appears to slow down as it approaches the event horizon, taking an infinite time to reach it.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-37"><a href="#cite_note-37"><font size="2"><span>[</span>38<span>]</span></font></a></sup> At the same time, all processes on this object slow down causing emitted light to appear redder and dimmer, an effect known as <a href="/wiki/Gravitational_redshift" title="Gravitational redshift">gravitational redshift</a>.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-38"><a href="#cite_note-38"><font size="2"><span>[</span>39<span>]</span></font></a></sup> Eventually, at a point just before it reaches the event horizon, the falling object becomes so dim that it can no longer be seen.</p>
584                <p>
585                        On the other hand, an observer falling into a black hole does not notice any of these effects as he crosses the event horizon. According to his own clock, he crosses the event horizon after a finite time, although he is unable to determine exactly when he crosses it, as it is impossible to determine the location of the event horizon from local observations.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-39"><a href="#cite_note-39"><font size="2"><span>[</span>40<span>]</span></font></a></sup></p>
586                <p>
587                        For a non rotating (static) black hole, the <a href="/wiki/Schwarzschild_radius" title="Schwarzschild radius">Schwarzschild radius</a> delimits a spherical event horizon. The Schwarzschild radius of an object is proportional to the mass.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-40"><a href="#cite_note-40"><font size="2"><span>[</span>41<span>]</span></font></a></sup> Rotating black holes have distorted, nonspherical event horizons. Since the event horizon is not a material surface but rather merely a mathematically defined demarcation boundary, nothing prevents matter or radiation from entering a black hole, only from exiting one. The description of black holes given by general relativity is known to be an approximation, and some scientists expect that <a href="/wiki/Quantum_gravity" title="Quantum gravity">quantum gravity</a> effects will become significant near the vicinity of the event horizon.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-41"><a href="#cite_note-41"><font size="2"><span>[</span>42<span>]</span></font></a></sup> This would allow observations of matter near a black hole&#39;s event horizon to be used to indirectly study <a href="/wiki/General_relativity" title="General relativity">general relativity</a> and proposed extensions to it.</p>
588                <h3>
589                        <span class="mw-headline" id="Singularity">Singularity</span></h3>
590                <div class="rellink relarticle mainarticle">
591                        Main article: <a href="/wiki/Gravitational_singularity" title="Gravitational singularity">Gravitational singularity</a></div>
592                <p>
593                        At the center of a black hole as described by general relativity lies a <a href="/wiki/Gravitational_singularity" title="Gravitational singularity">gravitational singularity</a>, a region where the spacetime curvature becomes infinite.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-42"><a href="#cite_note-42"><font size="2"><span>[</span>43<span>]</span></font></a></sup> For a non-rotating black hole this region takes the shape of a single point and for a <a href="/wiki/Rotating_black_hole" title="Rotating black hole">rotating black hole</a> it is smeared out to form a <a href="/wiki/Ring_singularity" title="Ring singularity">ring shape</a> lying in the plane of rotation.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-43"><a href="#cite_note-43"><font size="2"><span>[</span>44<span>]</span></font></a></sup> In both cases the singular region has zero volume. It can also be shown that the singular region contains all the mass of the black hole solution.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-44"><a href="#cite_note-44"><font size="2"><span>[</span>45<span>]</span></font></a></sup> The singular region can thus be thought of as having infinite <a class="mw-redirect" href="/wiki/Mass_density" title="Mass density">density</a>.</p>
594                <p>
595                        An observer falling into a Schwarzschild black hole (i.e. non-rotating and no charges) cannot avoid the singularity. Any attempt to do so will only shorten the time taken to get there.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-45"><a href="#cite_note-45"><font size="2"><span>[</span>46<span>]</span></font></a></sup> When he reaches the singularity he is crushed to infinite density and his mass is added to the total of the black hole. Before that happens he will have been torn apart by the growing <a href="/wiki/Tidal_force" title="Tidal force">tidal forces</a> in a process sometimes referred to as <a href="/wiki/Spaghettification" title="Spaghettification">spaghettification</a> or the noodle effect.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-46"><a href="#cite_note-46"><font size="2"><span>[</span>47<span>]</span></font></a></sup></p>
596                <p>
597                        In the case of a charged (Reissner-Nordstr&ouml;m) or rotating (Kerr) black hole it is possible to avoid the singularity. Extending these solutions as far as possible reveals the hypothetical possibility of exiting the black hole into a different spacetime with the black hole acting as a worm hole.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-47"><a href="#cite_note-47"><font size="2"><span>[</span>48<span>]</span></font></a></sup> The possibility of travelling to another universe is however only theoretical since an perturbation will destroy this possibility.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-48"><a href="#cite_note-48"><font size="2"><span>[</span>49<span>]</span></font></a></sup> It also appears to be possible to follow <a href="/wiki/Closed_timelike_curve" title="Closed timelike curve">closed timelike curves</a> around the Kerr singularity, which lead to problems with <a href="/wiki/Causality_(physics)" title="Causality (physics)">causality</a> like the <a href="/wiki/Grandfather_paradox" title="Grandfather paradox">grandfather paradox</a>.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-49"><a href="#cite_note-49"><font size="2"><span>[</span>50<span>]</span></font></a></sup> It is expected that none of these peculiar effects would survive in a proper quantum mechanical treatment of rotating and charged black holes.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-50"><a href="#cite_note-50"><font size="2"><span>[</span>51<span>]</span></font></a></sup></p>
598                <p>
599                        The appearance of singularities in general relativity is commonly perceived as signaling the breakdown of the theory.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-51"><a href="#cite_note-51"><font size="2"><span>[</span>52<span>]</span></font></a></sup> This breakdown, however, is expected; it occurs in a situation where <a href="/wiki/Quantum_mechanics" title="Quantum mechanics">quantum mechanical</a> effects should describe these actions due to the extremely high density and therefore particle interactions. To date it has not been possible to combine quantum and gravitational effects into a single theory. It is generally expected that a theory of <a href="/wiki/Quantum_gravity" title="Quantum gravity">quantum gravity</a> will feature black holes without singularities.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-52"><a href="#cite_note-52"><font size="2"><span>[</span>53<span>]</span></font></a></sup><sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-53"><a href="#cite_note-53"><font size="2"><span>[</span>54<span>]</span></font></a></sup></p>
600                <h3>
601                        <span class="mw-headline" id="Photon_sphere">Photon sphere</span></h3>
602                <div class="rellink relarticle mainarticle">
603                        Main article: <a href="/wiki/Photon_sphere" title="Photon sphere">Photon sphere</a></div>
604                <p>
605                        The photon sphere is a spherical boundary of zero thickness such that photons moving along <a href="/wiki/Tangent" title="Tangent">tangents</a> to the sphere will be trapped in a circular orbit. For non-rotating black holes, the photon sphere has a radius 1.5 times the <a href="/wiki/Schwarzschild_radius" title="Schwarzschild radius">Schwarzschild radius</a>. The orbits are <a href="/wiki/Instability" title="Instability">dynamically unstable</a>, hence any small perturbation (such as a particle of infalling matter) will grow over time, either setting it on an outward trajectory escaping the black hole or on an inward spiral eventually crossing the event horizon.</p>
606                <p>
607                        While light can still escape from inside the photon sphere, any light that crosses the photon sphere on an inbound trajectory will be captured by the black hole. Hence any light reaching an outside observer from inside the photon sphere must have been emitted by objects inside the photon sphere but still outside of the event horizon.</p>
608                <p>
609                        Other <a class="mw-redirect" href="/wiki/Compact_object" title="Compact object">compact objects</a>, such as <a class="mw-redirect" href="/wiki/Neutron_stars" title="Neutron stars">neutron stars</a>, can also have photon spheres.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-54"><a href="#cite_note-54"><font size="2"><span>[</span>55<span>]</span></font></a></sup> This follows from the fact that the gravitational field of an object does not depend on its actual size, hence any object that is smaller than 1.5 times the Schwarzschild radius corresponding to its mass will indeed have a photon sphere.</p>
610                <h3>
611                        <span class="mw-headline" id="Ergosphere">Ergosphere</span></h3>
612                <div class="rellink relarticle mainarticle">
613                        Main article: <a href="/wiki/Ergosphere" title="Ergosphere">Ergosphere</a></div>
614                <div class="thumb tright">
615                        <div class="thumbinner" style="width: 222px">
616                                <a class="image" href="/wiki/File:Ergosphere.svg"><img alt="" class="thumbimage" height="222" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/0c/Ergosphere.svg/220px-Ergosphere.svg.png" width="220" /></a>
617                                <div class="thumbcaption">
618                                        <div class="magnify">
619                                                <a class="internal" href="/wiki/File:Ergosphere.svg" title="Enlarge"><img alt="" height="11" src="http://bits.wikimedia.org/skins-1.5/common/images/magnify-clip.png" width="15" /></a></div>
620                                        The ergosphere is an oblate spheroid region outside of the event horizon, where objects cannot remain stationary.</div>
621                        </div>
622                </div>
623                <p>
624                        Rotating black holes are surrounded by a region of spacetime in which it is impossible to stand still, called the ergosphere. This is the result of a process known as <a href="/wiki/Frame-dragging" title="Frame-dragging">frame-dragging</a>; general relativity predicts that any rotating mass will tend to slightly &quot;drag&quot; along the spacetime immediately surrounding it. Any object near the rotating mass will tend to start moving in the direction of rotation. For a rotating black hole this effect becomes so strong near the event horizon that an object would have to move faster than the speed of light in the opposite direction to just stand still.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-55"><a href="#cite_note-55"><font size="2"><span>[</span>56<span>]</span></font></a></sup></p>
625                <p>
626                        The ergosphere of a black hole is bounded by, the (outer) event horizon on the inside and an <a href="/wiki/Oblate" title="Oblate">oblate</a> spheroid, which coincides with the event horizon at the poles and is noticeably wider around the equator. The outer boundary is sometimes called the <i>ergosurface</i>.</p>
627                <p>
628                        Objects and radiation can escape normally from the ergosphere. Through the <a href="/wiki/Penrose_process" title="Penrose process">Penrose process</a>, objects can emerge from the ergosphere with more energy than they entered. This energy is taken from the rotational energy of the black hole causing it to slow down.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-56"><a href="#cite_note-56"><font size="2"><span>[</span>57<span>]</span></font></a></sup></p>
629                <h2>
630                        <span class="mw-headline" id="Formation_and_evolution">Formation and evolution</span></h2>
631                <p>
632                        Considering the exotic nature of black holes, it may be natural to question if such bizarre objects could exist in nature or to suggest that they are merely pathological solutions to Einstein&#39;s equations. Einstein himself wrongly thought that black holes would not form, because he held that the angular momentum of collapsing particles would stabilize their motion at some radius.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-57"><a href="#cite_note-57"><font size="2"><span>[</span>58<span>]</span></font></a></sup> This led the general relativity community to dismiss all results to the contrary for many years. However, a minority of relativists continued to contend that black holes were physical objects,<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-58"><a href="#cite_note-58"><font size="2"><span>[</span>59<span>]</span></font></a></sup> and by the end of the 1960s, they had persuaded the majority of researchers in the field that there is no obstacle to forming an event horizon.</p>
633                <p>
634                        Once an event horizon forms, <a href="/wiki/Roger_Penrose" title="Roger Penrose">Roger Penrose</a> proved that a singularity will form somewhere inside it.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-penrose1965_19-1"><a href="#cite_note-penrose1965-19"><font size="2"><span>[</span>20<span>]</span></font></a></sup> Shortly afterwards, <a href="/wiki/Stephen_Hawking" title="Stephen Hawking">Stephen Hawking</a> showed that many cosmological solutions describing the <a href="/wiki/Big_Bang" title="Big Bang">Big Bang</a> have singularities without scalar fields or other exotic matter (see <a class="mw-redirect" href="/wiki/Penrose-Hawking_singularity_theorems" title="Penrose-Hawking singularity theorems">Penrose-Hawking singularity theorems</a>). The <a class="mw-redirect" href="/wiki/Kerr_solution" title="Kerr solution">Kerr solution</a>, the <a href="/wiki/No-hair_theorem" title="No-hair theorem">no-hair theorem</a> and the laws of <a href="/wiki/Black_hole_thermodynamics" title="Black hole thermodynamics">black hole thermodynamics</a> showed that the physical properties of black holes were simple and comprehensible, making them respectable subjects for research.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-HawkingPenrose1970_59-0"><a href="#cite_note-HawkingPenrose1970-59"><font size="2"><span>[</span>60<span>]</span></font></a></sup> The primary formation process for black holes is expected to be the <a href="/wiki/Gravitational_collapse" title="Gravitational collapse">gravitational collapse</a> of heavy objects such as stars, but there are also more exotic processes that can lead to the production of black holes.</p>
635                <h3>
636                        <span class="mw-headline" id="Gravitational_collapse">Gravitational collapse</span></h3>
637                <div class="rellink relarticle mainarticle">
638                        Main article: <a href="/wiki/Gravitational_collapse" title="Gravitational collapse">Gravitational collapse</a></div>
639                <p>
640                        Gravitational collapse occurs when an object&#39;s internal pressure is insufficient to resist the object&#39;s own gravity. For stars this usually occurs either because a star has too little <a href="/wiki/Stellar_nucleosynthesis" title="Stellar nucleosynthesis">&quot;fuel&quot;</a> left to maintain its temperature, or because a star which would have been stable receives extra matter in a way which does not raise its core temperature. In either case the star&#39;s temperature is no longer high enough to prevent it from collapsing under its own weight (the <a href="/wiki/Ideal_gas_law" title="Ideal gas law">ideal gas law</a> explains the connection between pressure, temperature, and volume).<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-Carroll5.8_60-0"><a href="#cite_note-Carroll5.8-60"><font size="2"><span>[</span>61<span>]</span></font></a></sup></p>
641                <p>
642                        The collapse may be stopped by the <a class="mw-redirect" href="/wiki/Degeneracy_pressure" title="Degeneracy pressure">degeneracy pressure</a> of the star&#39;s constituents, condensing the matter in an exotic <a href="/wiki/Degenerate_matter" title="Degenerate matter">denser state</a>. The result is one of the various types of <a href="/wiki/Compact_star" title="Compact star">compact star</a>. Which type of compact star is formed depends on the mass of the remnant&nbsp;&mdash; the matter left over after changes triggered by the collapse (such as <a href="/wiki/Supernova" title="Supernova">supernova</a> or pulsations leading to a <a href="/wiki/Planetary_nebula" title="Planetary nebula">planetary nebula</a>) have blown away the outer layers. Note that this can be substantially less than the original star&nbsp;&mdash; remnants exceeding 5 solar masses are produced by stars which were over 20 solar masses before the collapse.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-Carroll5.8_60-1"><a href="#cite_note-Carroll5.8-60"><font size="2"><span>[</span>61<span>]</span></font></a></sup></p>
643                <p>
644                        If the mass of the remnant exceeds about 3&ndash;4 solar masses (the <a href="/wiki/Tolman%E2%80%93Oppenheimer%E2%80%93Volkoff_limit" title="Tolman–Oppenheimer–Volkoff limit">Tolman&ndash;Oppenheimer&ndash;Volkoff limit</a>)&mdash;either because the original star was very heavy or because the remnant collected additional mass through accretion of matter&mdash;even the degeneracy pressure of <a class="mw-redirect" href="/wiki/Neutrons" title="Neutrons">neutrons</a> is insufficient to stop the collapse. After this no known mechanism (except possibly quark degeneracy pressure, see <a href="/wiki/Quark_star" title="Quark star">quark star</a>) is powerful enough to stop the collapse and the object will inevitably collapse to a black hole.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-Carroll5.8_60-2"><a href="#cite_note-Carroll5.8-60"><font size="2"><span>[</span>61<span>]</span></font></a></sup></p>
645                <p>
646                        This gravitational collapse of heavy stars is assumed to be responsible for the formation <a class="mw-redirect" href="/wiki/Stellar_mass_black_hole" title="Stellar mass black hole">stellar mass black holes</a>. Star formation in the young universe may have resulted in very heavy stars, which upon their collapse would have produced black holes of up to 10<sup><font size="2">3</font></sup> solar masses. These heavy black holes could be the seeds of the supermassive black holes found in the centers of most galaxies.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-ReesVolonteri_61-0"><a href="#cite_note-ReesVolonteri-61"><font size="2"><span>[</span>62<span>]</span></font></a></sup></p>
647                <p>
648                        While most of the energy released during gravitational collapse is emitted very quickly, an outside observer doesn&#39;t actually see the end of this process. Even though the collapse takes a finite amount of time from the reference frame of infalling matter, a distant observer sees the infalling material slow and halt just above the event horizon, due to gravitational time dilation. Light from the collapsing material takes longer and longer to reach the observer, with the light emitted just before the event horizon forms delayed an infinite amount of time. Thus the external observer never sees the formation of the event horizon; instead, the collapsing material seems to become dimmer and increasingly red-shifted, eventually fading away.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-62"><a href="#cite_note-62"><font size="2"><span>[</span>63<span>]</span></font></a></sup></p>
649                <h4>
650                        <span class="mw-headline" id="Primordial_black_holes_in_the_Big_Bang">Primordial black holes in the Big Bang</span></h4>
651                <p>
652                        Gravitational collapse requires great densities. In the current epoch of the universe these high densities are only found in stars, but in the early universe shortly after the <a class="mw-redirect" href="/wiki/Big_bang" title="Big bang">big bang</a> densities were much greater, possibly allowing for the creation of black holes. The high density alone is not enough to allow the formation of black holes since a uniform mass distribution will not allow the mass to bunch up. In order for <a class="mw-redirect" href="/wiki/Primordial_black_holes" title="Primordial black holes">primordial black holes</a> to form in such a dense medium, there must be initial density perturbations which can then grow under their own gravity. Different models for the early universe vary widely in their predictions of the size of these perturbations. Various models predict the creation of black holes, ranging from a <a href="/wiki/Planck_mass" title="Planck mass">Planck mass</a> to hundreds of thousands of solar masses.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-63"><a href="#cite_note-63"><font size="2"><span>[</span>64<span>]</span></font></a></sup> Primordial black holes could thus account for the creation of any type of black hole.</p>
653                <h3>
654                        <span class="mw-headline" id="High_energy_collisions">High energy collisions</span></h3>
655                <div class="thumb tright">
656                        <div class="thumbinner" style="width: 222px">
657                                <a class="image" href="/wiki/File:CMS_Higgs-event.jpg"><img alt="" class="thumbimage" height="202" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/1c/CMS_Higgs-event.jpg/220px-CMS_Higgs-event.jpg" width="220" /></a>
658                                <div class="thumbcaption">
659                                        <div class="magnify">
660                                                <a class="internal" href="/wiki/File:CMS_Higgs-event.jpg" title="Enlarge"><img alt="" height="11" src="http://bits.wikimedia.org/skins-1.5/common/images/magnify-clip.png" width="15" /></a></div>
661                                        A simulated event in the CMS detector, a collision in which a micro black hole may be created.</div>
662                        </div>
663                </div>
664                <p>
665                        Gravitational collapse is not the only process that could create black holes. In principle, black holes could also be created in high energy collisions that create sufficient density. However, to date, no such events have ever been detected either directly or indirectly as a deficiency of the mass balance in <a href="/wiki/Particle_accelerator" title="Particle accelerator">particle accelerator</a> experiments.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-64"><a href="#cite_note-64"><font size="2"><span>[</span>65<span>]</span></font></a></sup> This suggests that there must be a lower limit for the mass of black holes. Theoretically this boundary is expected to lie around the <a href="/wiki/Planck_mass" title="Planck mass">Planck mass</a> (~10<sup><font size="2">19</font></sup> <a class="mw-redirect" href="/wiki/GeV" title="GeV">GeV</a>/c<sup><font size="2">2</font></sup> = ~2&nbsp;&times;&nbsp;10<sup><font size="2">&minus;8</font></sup> kg), where quantum effects are expected to make the theory of general relativity break down completely.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-65"><a href="#cite_note-65"><font size="2"><span>[</span>66<span>]</span></font></a></sup> This would put the creation of black holes firmly out of reach of any high energy process occurring on or near the Earth. Certain developments in quantum gravity however suggest that this bound could be much lower. Some <a class="mw-redirect" href="/wiki/Braneworld" title="Braneworld">braneworld</a> scenarios for example put the Planck mass much lower, maybe even as low as 1 TeV/c<sup><font size="2">2</font></sup>.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-66"><a href="#cite_note-66"><font size="2"><span>[</span>67<span>]</span></font></a></sup> This would make it possible for <a href="/wiki/Micro_black_hole" title="Micro black hole">micro black holes</a> to be created in the high energy collisions occurring when cosmic rays hit the Earth&#39;s atmosphere, or possibly in the new <a href="/wiki/Large_Hadron_Collider" title="Large Hadron Collider">Large Hadron Collider</a> at <a href="/wiki/CERN" title="CERN">CERN</a>. These theories are however very speculative, and the creation of black holes in these processes is deemed unlikely by many specialists.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-LHCsafety_67-0"><a href="#cite_note-LHCsafety-67"><font size="2"><span>[</span>68<span>]</span></font></a></sup></p>
666                <h3>
667                        <span class="mw-headline" id="Growth">Growth</span></h3>
668                <p>
669                        Once a black hole has formed, it can continue to grow by absorbing additional matter. Any black hole will continually absorb gas and <a class="mw-redirect" href="/wiki/Interstellar_dust" title="Interstellar dust">interstellar dust</a> from its direct surroundings and omnipresent <a class="mw-redirect" href="/wiki/Cosmic_background_radiation" title="Cosmic background radiation">cosmic background radiation</a>. This is the primary process through which supermassive black holes seem to have grown.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-ReesVolonteri_61-1"><a href="#cite_note-ReesVolonteri-61"><font size="2"><span>[</span>62<span>]</span></font></a></sup> A similar process has been suggested for the formation of <a href="/wiki/Intermediate-mass_black_hole" title="Intermediate-mass black hole">intermediate-mass black holes</a> in <a href="/wiki/Globular_cluster" title="Globular cluster">globular clusters</a>.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-68"><a href="#cite_note-68"><font size="2"><span>[</span>69<span>]</span></font></a></sup></p>
670                <p>
671                        Another possibility is for a black hole to merge with other objects such as stars or even other black holes. This is thought to have been important especially for the early development of supermassive black holes, which are thought to have formed from the coagulation of many smaller objects.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-ReesVolonteri_61-2"><a href="#cite_note-ReesVolonteri-61"><font size="2"><span>[</span>62<span>]</span></font></a></sup> The process has also been proposed as the origin of some <a href="/wiki/Intermediate-mass_black_hole" title="Intermediate-mass black hole">intermediate-mass black holes</a>.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-69"><a href="#cite_note-69"><font size="2"><span>[</span>70<span>]</span></font></a></sup><sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-70"><a href="#cite_note-70"><font size="2"><span>[</span>71<span>]</span></font></a></sup></p>
672                <h3>
673                        <span class="mw-headline" id="Evaporation">Evaporation</span></h3>
674                <div class="rellink relarticle mainarticle">
675                        Main article: <a href="/wiki/Hawking_radiation" title="Hawking radiation">Hawking radiation</a></div>
676                <p>
677                        In 1974, <a href="/wiki/Stephen_Hawking" title="Stephen Hawking">Stephen Hawking</a> showed that black holes are not entirely black but emit small amounts of thermal radiation.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-Hawking1974_22-1"><a href="#cite_note-Hawking1974-22"><font size="2"><span>[</span>23<span>]</span></font></a></sup> He got this result by applying <a href="/wiki/Quantum_field_theory" title="Quantum field theory">quantum field theory</a> in a static black hole background. The result of his calculations is that a black hole should emit particles in a perfect <a class="mw-redirect" href="/wiki/Black_body_spectrum" title="Black body spectrum">black body spectrum</a>. This effect has become known as <a href="/wiki/Hawking_radiation" title="Hawking radiation">Hawking radiation</a>. Since Hawking&#39;s result, many others have verified the effect through various methods.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-71"><a href="#cite_note-71"><font size="2"><span>[</span>72<span>]</span></font></a></sup> If his theory of black hole radiation is correct then black holes are expected to emit a thermal spectrum of radiation, and thereby lose mass, because according to the theory of relativity mass is just highly condensed energy (<i>E</i>&nbsp;= <i>mc</i><sup><font size="2">2</font></sup>).<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-Hawking1974_22-2"><a href="#cite_note-Hawking1974-22"><font size="2"><span>[</span>23<span>]</span></font></a></sup> Black holes will shrink and evaporate over time. The temperature of this spectrum (<a class="mw-redirect" href="/wiki/Hawking_temperature" title="Hawking temperature">Hawking temperature</a>) is proportional to the <a href="/wiki/Surface_gravity" title="Surface gravity">surface gravity</a> of the black hole, which for a Schwarzschild black hole is inversely proportional to the mass. Large black holes, therefore, emit less radiation than small black holes.</p>
678                <p>
679                        A stellar black hole of one solar mass has a Hawking temperature of about 100 nanokelvins. This is far less than the 2.7 K temperature of the <a class="mw-redirect" href="/wiki/Cosmic_microwave_background" title="Cosmic microwave background">cosmic microwave background</a>. Stellar mass (and larger) black holes receive more mass from the cosmic microwave background than they emit through Hawking radiation and will thus grow instead of shrink. To have a Hawking temperature larger than 2.7 K (and be able to evaporate) a black hole needs to be lighter than the <a href="/wiki/Moon" title="Moon">Moon</a> (and therefore a diameter of less than a tenth of a millimeter).<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-72"><a href="#cite_note-72"><font size="2"><span>[</span>73<span>]</span></font></a></sup></p>
680                <p>
681                        On the other hand if a black hole is very small, the radiation effects are expected to become very strong. Even a black hole that is heavy compared to a human would evaporate in an instant. A black hole the weight of a car (~10<sup><font size="2">&minus;24</font></sup> m) would only take a nanosecond to evaporate, during which time it would briefly have a luminosity more than 200 times that of the sun. Lighter black holes are expected to evaporate even faster, for example a black hole of mass 1 TeV/<i>c</i><sup><font size="2">2</font></sup> would take less than 10<sup><font size="2">&minus;88</font></sup> seconds to evaporate completely. Of course, for such a small black hole <a href="/wiki/Quantum_gravity" title="Quantum gravity">quantum gravitation</a> effects are expected to play an important role and could even&nbsp;&ndash; although current developments in quantum gravity do not indicate so<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-73"><a href="#cite_note-73"><font size="2"><span>[</span>74<span>]</span></font></a></sup>&nbsp;&ndash; hypothetically make such a small black hole stable.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-74"><a href="#cite_note-74"><font size="2"><span>[</span>75<span>]</span></font></a></sup></p>
682                <h2>
683                        <span class="mw-headline" id="Observational_evidence">Observational evidence</span></h2>
684                <p>
685                        By their very nature black holes do not directly emit any signals other than the hypothetical Hawking radiation. Since the Hawking radiation for an astrophysical black hole is predicted to be very weak, this makes it impossible to directly detect astrophysical black holes from the Earth. A possible exception to the Hawking radiation being weak is the last stage of the evaporation of light (primordial) black holes. Searches for such flashes in the past has proven unsuccessful and provides stringent limits on the possibility of existence of light primordial black holes.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-75"><a href="#cite_note-75"><font size="2"><span>[</span>76<span>]</span></font></a></sup> NASA&#39;s <a href="/wiki/Fermi_Gamma-ray_Space_Telescope" title="Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope">Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope</a> launched in 2008 will continue the search for these flashes.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-76"><a href="#cite_note-76"><font size="2"><span>[</span>77<span>]</span></font></a></sup></p>
686                <p>
687                        Astrophysicists searching for black holes thus have to rely on indirect observations. A black hole&#39;s existence can sometimes be inferred by observing its gravitational interactions with its surroundings.</p>
688                <h3>
689                        <span class="mw-headline" id="Accretion_of_matter">Accretion of matter</span></h3>
690                <div class="rellink boilerplate seealso">
691                        See also: <a href="/wiki/Accretion_disc" title="Accretion disc">Accretion disc</a></div>
692                <div class="thumb tright">
693                        <div class="thumbinner" style="width: 222px">
694                                <a class="image" href="/wiki/File:Black_hole_jet_diagram.jpg"><img alt="" class="thumbimage" height="194" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/ab/Black_hole_jet_diagram.jpg/220px-Black_hole_jet_diagram.jpg" width="220" /></a>
695                                <div class="thumbcaption">
696                                        <div class="magnify">
697                                                <a class="internal" href="/wiki/File:Black_hole_jet_diagram.jpg" title="Enlarge"><img alt="" height="11" src="http://bits.wikimedia.org/skins-1.5/common/images/magnify-clip.png" width="15" /></a></div>
698                                        Formation of extragalactic jets from a black hole&#39;s <a href="/wiki/Accretion_disc" title="Accretion disc">accretion disk</a></div>
699                        </div>
700                </div>
701                <p>
702                        Due to <a class="mw-redirect" href="/wiki/Conservation_of_angular_momentum" title="Conservation of angular momentum">conservation of angular momentum</a>, gas falling into the <a href="/wiki/Gravitational_well" title="Gravitational well">gravitational well</a> created by a massive object will typically form a disc-like structure around the object. Friction within the disc causes angular momentum to be transported outward allowing matter to fall further inward releasing potential energy and increasing the temperature of the gas.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-McClintockRemillard2006_77-0"><a href="#cite_note-McClintockRemillard2006-77"><font size="2"><span>[</span>78<span>]</span></font></a></sup> In the case of <a class="mw-redirect" href="/wiki/Compact_object" title="Compact object">compact objects</a> such as <a href="/wiki/White_dwarf" title="White dwarf">white dwarfs</a>, <a href="/wiki/Neutron_star" title="Neutron star">neutron stars</a>, and black holes, the gas in the inner regions becomes so hot that it will emit vast amounts of radiation (mainly X-rays), which may be detected by telescopes. This process of accretion is one of the most efficient energy producing process known; up to 40% of the rest mass of the accreted material can be emitted in radiation.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-McClintockRemillard2006_77-1"><a href="#cite_note-McClintockRemillard2006-77"><font size="2"><span>[</span>78<span>]</span></font></a></sup> (In nuclear fusion only about 1% of the rest mass will be emitted as energy.) In many cases, accretion discs are accompanied by <a class="mw-redirect" href="/wiki/Relativistic_jets" title="Relativistic jets">relativistic jets</a> emitted along the poles, which carry away much of the energy. The mechanism for the creation of these jets is currently not well understood.</p>
703                <p>
704                        As such many of the universe&#39;s more energetic phenomena have been attributed to the accretion of matter on black holes. In particular, <a href="/wiki/Active_galactic_nucleus" title="Active galactic nucleus">active galactic nuclei</a> and <a href="/wiki/Quasar" title="Quasar">quasars</a> are thought to be the accretion discs of supermassive black holes.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-CMS1999_78-0"><a href="#cite_note-CMS1999-78"><font size="2"><span>[</span>79<span>]</span></font></a></sup> Similarly, X-ray binaries are thought to be <a href="/wiki/Binary_star" title="Binary star">binary star</a> systems in which one of the two stars is a compact object accreting matter from its companion.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-CMS1999_78-1"><a href="#cite_note-CMS1999-78"><font size="2"><span>[</span>79<span>]</span></font></a></sup> It has also been suggested that some <a href="/wiki/Ultraluminous_X-ray_source" title="Ultraluminous X-ray source">ultraluminous X-ray sources</a> may be the accretion disks of <a href="/wiki/Intermediate-mass_black_hole" title="Intermediate-mass black hole">intermediate-mass black holes</a>.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-79"><a href="#cite_note-79"><font size="2"><span>[</span>80<span>]</span></font></a></sup></p>
705                <h3>
706                        <span class="mw-headline" id="X-ray_binaries">X-ray binaries</span></h3>
707                <div class="rellink boilerplate seealso">
708                        See also: <a href="/wiki/X-ray_binary" title="X-ray binary">X-ray binary</a></div>
709                <p>
710                        <a class="mw-redirect" href="/wiki/X-ray_binaries" title="X-ray binaries">X-ray binaries</a> are <a href="/wiki/Binary_star" title="Binary star">binary star</a> systems that are luminous in the <a href="/wiki/X-ray" title="X-ray">X-ray</a> part of the spectrum. These X-ray emissions are generally thought to be caused by one of the component stars being a compact object accreting matter from the other (regular) star. The presence of an ordinary star in such a system provides a unique opportunity for studying the central object and determining if it might be a black hole.</p>
711                <div class="thumb tleft">
712                        <div class="thumbinner" style="width: 262px">
713                                <a class="image" href="/wiki/File:Accretion_Disk_Binary_System.jpg"><img alt="" class="thumbimage" height="171" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/0c/Accretion_Disk_Binary_System.jpg/260px-Accretion_Disk_Binary_System.jpg" width="260" /></a>
714                                <div class="thumbcaption">
715                                        <div class="magnify">
716                                                <a class="internal" href="/wiki/File:Accretion_Disk_Binary_System.jpg" title="Enlarge"><img alt="" height="11" src="http://bits.wikimedia.org/skins-1.5/common/images/magnify-clip.png" width="15" /></a></div>
717                                        Artist impression of a binary system with an accretion disk around a compact object being fed by material from the companion star.</div>
718                        </div>
719                </div>
720                <p>
721                        If such a system emits signals that can be directly traced back to the compact object, it cannot be a black hole. The absence of such a signal does, however, not exclude the possibility that the compact object is a neutron star. By studying the companion star it is often possible to obtain the orbital parameters of the system and obtain an estimate for the mass of the compact object. If this is much larger than the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff limit (that is, the maximum mass a neutron star can have before collapsing) then the object cannot be a neutron star and is generally expected to be a black hole.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-CMS1999_78-2"><a href="#cite_note-CMS1999-78"><font size="2"><span>[</span>79<span>]</span></font></a></sup></p>
722                <p>
723                        The first strong candidate for a black hole, <a href="/wiki/Cygnus_X-1" title="Cygnus X-1">Cygnus X-1</a>, was discovered in this way by <a href="/wiki/Charles_Thomas_Bolton" title="Charles Thomas Bolton">Charles Thomas Bolton</a><sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-80"><a href="#cite_note-80"><font size="2"><span>[</span>81<span>]</span></font></a></sup> and <a class="new" href="/w/index.php?title=Louise_Webster&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" title="Louise Webster (page does not exist)">Webster</a> and <a class="new" href="/w/index.php?title=Paul_Murdin&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" title="Paul Murdin (page does not exist)">Murdin</a><sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-81"><a href="#cite_note-81"><font size="2"><span>[</span>82<span>]</span></font></a></sup> in 1972.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-82"><a href="#cite_note-82"><font size="2"><span>[</span>83<span>]</span></font></a></sup><sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-83"><a href="#cite_note-83"><font size="2"><span>[</span>84<span>]</span></font></a></sup> Some doubt, however, remained due to the uncertainties resultant from the companion star being much heavier than the candidate black hole.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-CMS1999_78-3"><a href="#cite_note-CMS1999-78"><font size="2"><span>[</span>79<span>]</span></font></a></sup> Currently, better candidates for black holes are found in a class of X-ray binaries called soft X-ray transients.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-CMS1999_78-4"><a href="#cite_note-CMS1999-78"><font size="2"><span>[</span>79<span>]</span></font></a></sup> In this class of system the companion star is relatively low mass allowing for more accurate estimates in the black hole mass. Moreover, these systems are only active in X-ray for several months once every 10&ndash;50 years. During the period of low X-ray emission (called quiescence) the accretion disc is extremely faint allowing for detailed observation of the companion star during this period. One of the best such candidates is <a class="new" href="/w/index.php?title=V404_Cyg&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" title="V404 Cyg (page does not exist)">V404 Cyg</a>.</p>
724                <h4>
725                        <span class="mw-headline" id="Quiescence_and_advection-dominated_accretion_flow">Quiescence and advection-dominated accretion flow</span></h4>
726                <p>
727                        The faintness of the accretion disc during quiescence is thought to be caused by the flow entering a mode called an <a class="mw-redirect" href="/wiki/Advection-dominated_accretion_flow" title="Advection-dominated accretion flow">advection-dominated accretion flow</a> (ADAF). In this mode, almost all the energy generated by friction in the disc is swept along with the flow instead of radiated away. If this model is correct, then it forms strong qualitative evidence for the presence of an event horizon.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-84"><a href="#cite_note-84"><font size="2"><span>[</span>85<span>]</span></font></a></sup> Because, if the object at the center of the disc had a solid surface, it would emit large amounts of radiation as the highly energetic gas hits the surface, an effect that is observed for neutron stars in a similar state.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-McClintockRemillard2006_77-2"><a href="#cite_note-McClintockRemillard2006-77"><font size="2"><span>[</span>78<span>]</span></font></a></sup></p>
728                <h4>
729                        <span class="mw-headline" id="Quasi-periodic_oscillations">Quasi-periodic oscillations</span></h4>
730                <div class="rellink boilerplate seealso">
731                        See also: <a href="/wiki/Quasi-periodic_oscillations" title="Quasi-periodic oscillations">Quasi-periodic oscillations</a></div>
732                <p>
733                        The X-ray emissions from accretion disks sometimes exhibit a flickering around certain frequencies. These signals are called <a href="/wiki/Quasi-periodic_oscillations" title="Quasi-periodic oscillations">quasi-periodic oscillations</a> and are thought to be caused by material moving along the inner edge of the accretion disk (the innermost stable circular orbit). As such their frequency is linked to the mass of the compact object. They can thus be used as an alternative way to determine the mass of potential black holes.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-85"><a href="#cite_note-85"><font size="2"><span>[</span>86<span>]</span></font></a></sup></p>
734                <h3>
735                        <span class="mw-headline" id="Gamma_ray_bursts">Gamma ray bursts</span></h3>
736                <p>
737                        Intense but one-time <a class="mw-redirect" href="/wiki/Gamma_ray_burst" title="Gamma ray burst">gamma ray bursts</a> (GRBs) may signal the birth of &quot;new&quot; black holes, because astrophysicists think that GRBs are caused either by the <a href="/wiki/Gravitational_collapse" title="Gravitational collapse">gravitational collapse</a> of giant stars<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-86"><a href="#cite_note-86"><font size="2"><span>[</span>87<span>]</span></font></a></sup> or by collisions between neutron stars,<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-Harvard.edu-NeutronStars_87-0"><a href="#cite_note-Harvard.edu-NeutronStars-87"><font size="2"><span>[</span>88<span>]</span></font></a></sup> and both types of event involve sufficient mass and pressure to produce black holes. It appears that a collision between a neutron star and a black hole can also cause a GRB,<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-88"><a href="#cite_note-88"><font size="2"><span>[</span>89<span>]</span></font></a></sup> so a GRB is not proof that a &quot;new&quot; black hole has been formed. All known GRBs come from outside our own galaxy, and most come from billions of <a class="mw-redirect" href="/wiki/Light_year" title="Light year">light years</a> away<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-89"><a href="#cite_note-89"><font size="2"><span>[</span>90<span>]</span></font></a></sup> so the black holes associated with them are billions of years old.</p>
738                <h3>
739                        <span class="mw-headline" id="Galactic_nuclei">Galactic nuclei</span></h3>
740                <div class="rellink boilerplate seealso">
741                        See also: <a href="/wiki/Active_galactic_nucleus" title="Active galactic nucleus">Active galactic nucleus</a></div>
742                <div class="thumb tright">
743                        <div class="thumbinner" style="width: 222px">
744                                <a class="image" href="/wiki/File:M87_jet.jpg"><img alt="" class="thumbimage" height="230" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/39/M87_jet.jpg/220px-M87_jet.jpg" width="220" /></a>
745                                <div class="thumbcaption">
746                                        <div class="magnify">
747                                                <a class="internal" href="/wiki/File:M87_jet.jpg" title="Enlarge"><img alt="" height="11" src="http://bits.wikimedia.org/skins-1.5/common/images/magnify-clip.png" width="15" /></a></div>
748                                        The jet originating from the center of <a href="/wiki/Messier_87" title="Messier 87">M87</a> in this image comes from an <a href="/wiki/Active_galactic_nucleus" title="Active galactic nucleus">active galactic nucleus</a> that may contain a <a href="/wiki/Supermassive_black_hole" title="Supermassive black hole">supermassive black hole</a>. Credit: <a href="/wiki/Hubble_Space_Telescope" title="Hubble Space Telescope">Hubble Space Telescope</a>/<a href="/wiki/NASA" title="NASA">NASA</a>/<a class="mw-redirect" href="/wiki/ESA" title="ESA">ESA</a>.</div>
749                        </div>
750                </div>
751                <p>
752                        It is now widely accepted that the center of every or at least nearly every galaxy contains a supermassive black hole.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-King_90-0"><a href="#cite_note-King-90"><font size="2"><span>[</span>91<span>]</span></font></a></sup> The close observational correlation between the mass of this hole and the velocity dispersion of the host galaxy&#39;s bulge, known as the <a href="/wiki/M-sigma_relation" title="M-sigma relation">M-sigma relation</a>, strongly suggests a connection between the formation of the black hole and the galaxy itself. <sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-msigma2000_91-0"><a href="#cite_note-msigma2000-91"><font size="2"><span>[</span>92<span>]</span></font></a></sup></p>
753                <p>
754                        For decades, astronomers have used the term &quot;<a class="mw-redirect" href="/wiki/Active_galaxy" title="Active galaxy">active galaxy</a>&quot; to describe galaxies with unusual characteristics, such as unusual <a href="/wiki/Spectral_line" title="Spectral line">spectral line</a> emission and very strong <a href="/wiki/Radio" title="Radio">radio</a> emission.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-krolik1999_92-0"><a href="#cite_note-krolik1999-92"><font size="2"><span>[</span>93<span>]</span></font></a></sup><sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-sparkegallagher2000_93-0"><a href="#cite_note-sparkegallagher2000-93"><font size="2"><span>[</span>94<span>]</span></font></a></sup> However, theoretical and observational studies have shown that the <a href="/wiki/Active_galactic_nucleus" title="Active galactic nucleus">active galactic nuclei</a> (AGN) in these galaxies may contain <a class="mw-redirect" href="/wiki/Supermassive_black_holes" title="Supermassive black holes">supermassive black holes</a>.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-krolik1999_92-1"><a href="#cite_note-krolik1999-92"><font size="2"><span>[</span>93<span>]</span></font></a></sup><sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-sparkegallagher2000_93-1"><a href="#cite_note-sparkegallagher2000-93"><font size="2"><span>[</span>94<span>]</span></font></a></sup> The models of these AGN consist of a central black hole that may be millions or billions of times more massive than the <a href="/wiki/Sun" title="Sun">Sun</a>; a disk of <a class="mw-redirect" href="/wiki/Interstellar_gas" title="Interstellar gas">gas</a> and <a class="mw-redirect" href="/wiki/Interstellar_dust" title="Interstellar dust">dust</a> called an <a href="/wiki/Accretion_disc" title="Accretion disc">accretion disk</a>; and two <a href="/wiki/Relativistic_jet" title="Relativistic jet">jets</a> that are perpendicular to the accretion disk.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-sparkegallagher2000_93-2"><a href="#cite_note-sparkegallagher2000-93"><font size="2"><span>[</span>94<span>]</span></font></a></sup></p>
755                <p>
756                        Although supermassive black holes are expected to be found in most AGN, only some galaxies&#39; nuclei have been more carefully studied in attempts to both identify and measure the actual masses of the central supermassive black hole candidates. Some of the most notable galaxies with supermassive black hole candidates include the <a href="/wiki/Andromeda_Galaxy" title="Andromeda Galaxy">Andromeda Galaxy</a>, <a href="/wiki/Messier_32" title="Messier 32">M32</a>, M87, <a href="/wiki/NGC_3115" title="NGC 3115">NGC 3115</a>, <a class="new" href="/w/index.php?title=NGC_3377&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" title="NGC 3377 (page does not exist)">NGC 3377</a>, <a class="mw-redirect" href="/wiki/NGC_4258" title="NGC 4258">NGC 4258</a>, and the <a href="/wiki/Sombrero_Galaxy" title="Sombrero Galaxy">Sombrero Galaxy</a>.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-kormendyrichstone1995_94-0"><a href="#cite_note-kormendyrichstone1995-94"><font size="2"><span>[</span>95<span>]</span></font></a></sup></p>
757                <p>
758                        Currently, the best evidence for a supermassive black hole comes from studying the <a href="/wiki/Proper_motion" title="Proper motion">proper motion</a> of stars near the center of our own <a href="/wiki/Milky_Way" title="Milky Way">Milky Way</a>.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-Gillessen_95-0"><a href="#cite_note-Gillessen-95"><font size="2"><span>[</span>96<span>]</span></font></a></sup> Since 1995 astronomers have tracked the motion of 90 stars in a region called <a href="/wiki/Sagittarius_A*" title="Sagittarius A*">Sagittarius A*</a>. By fitting their motion to <a class="mw-redirect" href="/wiki/Keplerian_orbit" title="Keplerian orbit">Keplerian orbits</a> they were able to infer in 1998 that 2.6 million <a href="/wiki/Solar_mass" title="Solar mass">solar masses</a> must be contained in a volume with a radius of 0.02 <a class="mw-redirect" href="/wiki/Lightyear" title="Lightyear">lightyears</a>.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-Ghez1998_96-0"><a href="#cite_note-Ghez1998-96"><font size="2"><span>[</span>97<span>]</span></font></a></sup> Since then one of the stars&mdash;called <a href="/wiki/S2_(star)" title="S2 (star)">S2</a>&mdash;has completed a full orbit. From the orbital data they were able to place better constraints on the mass and size of the object causing the orbital motion of stars in the Sagittarius A* region, finding that there is a spherical mass of 4.3 million solar masses contained within a radius of less than 0.002 lightyears.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-Gillessen_95-1"><a href="#cite_note-Gillessen-95"><font size="2"><span>[</span>96<span>]</span></font></a></sup> While this is more than 3000 times the Schwarzschild radius corresponding to that mass, it is at least consistent with the central object being a supermassive black hole, and no &quot;realistic cluster [of stars] is physically tenable.&quot;<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-Ghez1998_96-1"><a href="#cite_note-Ghez1998-96"><font size="2"><span>[</span>97<span>]</span></font></a></sup></p>
759                <h3>
760                        <span class="mw-headline" id="Gravitational_lensing">Gravitational lensing</span></h3>
761                <div class="rellink boilerplate further">
762                        Further information: <a href="/wiki/Gravitational_lens" title="Gravitational lens">Gravitational lens</a></div>
763                <p>
764                        The deformation of spacetime around a massive object causes light rays to be deflected much like light passing through an optic <a href="/wiki/Lens_(optics)" title="Lens (optics)">lens</a>. This phenomenon is known as <a class="mw-redirect" href="/wiki/Gravitational_lensing" title="Gravitational lensing">gravitational lensing</a>. Observations have been made of weak gravitational lensing, in which <a href="/wiki/Photon" title="Photon">photons</a> are deflected by only a few <a class="mw-redirect" href="/wiki/Arcseconds" title="Arcseconds">arcseconds</a>. However, it has never been directly observed for a black hole.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-Valerio_97-0"><a href="#cite_note-Valerio-97"><font size="2"><span>[</span>98<span>]</span></font></a></sup> One possibility for observing gravitational lensing by a black hole would be to observe stars in orbit around the black hole. There are several candidates for such an observation in orbit around <a href="/wiki/Sagittarius_A*" title="Sagittarius A*">Sagittarius A*</a>.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-Valerio_97-1"><a href="#cite_note-Valerio-97"><font size="2"><span>[</span>98<span>]</span></font></a></sup></p>
765                <h3>
766                        <span class="mw-headline" id="Alternatives">Alternatives</span></h3>
767                <p>
768                        The evidence for stellar black holes strongly relies on the existence of an upper limit for the mass of a neutron star. The size of this limit heavily depends on the assumptions made about the properties of dense matter. New exotic <a href="/wiki/Phase_(matter)" title="Phase (matter)">phases</a> of matter could push up this bound.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-CMS1999_78-5"><a href="#cite_note-CMS1999-78"><font size="2"><span>[</span>79<span>]</span></font></a></sup> A phase of free <a href="/wiki/Quark" title="Quark">quarks</a> at high density might allow the existence of dense <a href="/wiki/Quark_star" title="Quark star">quark stars</a>,<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-98"><a href="#cite_note-98"><font size="2"><span>[</span>99<span>]</span></font></a></sup> and some <a href="/wiki/Supersymmetry" title="Supersymmetry">supersymmetric</a> models predict the existence of <a href="/wiki/Q_star" title="Q star">Q stars</a>.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-99"><a href="#cite_note-99"><font size="2"><span>[</span>100<span>]</span></font></a></sup> Some extensions of the <a class="mw-redirect" href="/wiki/Standard_model" title="Standard model">standard model</a> posit the existence of <a href="/wiki/Preon" title="Preon">preons</a> as fundamental building blocks of quarks and <a href="/wiki/Lepton" title="Lepton">leptons</a> which could hypothetically form <a class="mw-redirect" href="/wiki/Preon_star" title="Preon star">preon stars</a>.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-100"><a href="#cite_note-100"><font size="2"><span>[</span>101<span>]</span></font></a></sup> These hypothetical models could potentially explain a number of observations of stellar black hole candidates. However, it can be shown from general arguments in general relativity that any such object will have a maximum mass.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-CMS1999_78-6"><a href="#cite_note-CMS1999-78"><font size="2"><span>[</span>79<span>]</span></font></a></sup></p>
769                <p>
770                        Since the average density of a black hole inside its Schwarzschild radius is inversely proportional to the square of its mass, supermassive black holes are much less dense than stellar black holes (the average density of a large supermassive black hole is comparable to that of water).<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-CMS1999_78-7"><a href="#cite_note-CMS1999-78"><font size="2"><span>[</span>79<span>]</span></font></a></sup> Consequently, the physics of matter forming a supermassive black hole is much better understood and the possible alternative explanations for supermassive black hole observations are much more mundane. For example, a supermassive black hole could be modelled by a large cluster of very dark objects. However, typically such alternatives are not stable enough to explain the supermassive black hole candidates.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-CMS1999_78-8"><a href="#cite_note-CMS1999-78"><font size="2"><span>[</span>79<span>]</span></font></a></sup></p>
771                <p>
772                        The evidence for stellar and supermassive black holes implies that in order for black holes not to form, general relativity must fail as a theory of gravity, perhaps due to the onset of <a href="/wiki/Quantum_mechanics" title="Quantum mechanics">quantum mechanical</a> corrections. A much anticipated feature of a theory of quantum gravity is that it will not feature singularities or event horizons (and thus no black holes).<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-101"><a href="#cite_note-101"><font size="2"><span>[</span>102<span>]</span></font></a></sup> In recent years, much attention has been drawn by the <a href="/wiki/Fuzzball_(string_theory)" title="Fuzzball (string theory)">fuzzball</a> model in <a href="/wiki/String_theory" title="String theory">string theory</a>. Based on calculations in specific situations in string theory, the proposal suggest that generically the individual states of a black hole solution do not have an event horizon or singularity (and can thus not really be considered to be a black hole), but that for a distant observer the statistical average of such states does appear just like an ordinary black hole in general relativity.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-102"><a href="#cite_note-102"><font size="2"><span>[</span>103<span>]</span></font></a></sup></p>
773                <h2>
774                        <span class="mw-headline" id="Open_questions">Open questions</span></h2>
775                <h3>
776                        <span class="mw-headline" id="Entropy_and_Hawking_radiation">Entropy and Hawking radiation</span></h3>
777                <div class="rellink boilerplate further">
778                        Further information: <a href="/wiki/Hawking_radiation" title="Hawking radiation">Hawking radiation</a> and <a href="/wiki/Black_hole_thermodynamics" title="Black hole thermodynamics">Black hole thermodynamics</a></div>
779                <div class="thumb tright">
780                        <div class="thumbinner" style="width: 222px">
781                                <a class="image" href="/wiki/File:First_Gold_Beam-Beam_Collision_Events_at_RHIC_at_100_100_GeV_c_per_beam_recorded_by_STAR.jpg"><img alt="" class="thumbimage" height="170" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/41/First_Gold_Beam-Beam_Collision_Events_at_RHIC_at_100_100_GeV_c_per_beam_recorded_by_STAR.jpg/220px-First_Gold_Beam-Beam_Collision_Events_at_RHIC_at_100_100_GeV_c_per_beam_recorded_by_STAR.jpg" width="220" /></a>
782                                <div class="thumbcaption">
783                                        <div class="magnify">
784                                                <a class="internal" href="/wiki/File:First_Gold_Beam-Beam_Collision_Events_at_RHIC_at_100_100_GeV_c_per_beam_recorded_by_STAR.jpg" title="Enlarge"><img alt="" height="11" src="http://bits.wikimedia.org/skins-1.5/common/images/magnify-clip.png" width="15" /></a></div>
785                                        If ultra-high-energy collisions of particles in a <a href="/wiki/Particle_accelerator" title="Particle accelerator">particle accelerator</a> can create microscopic black holes, it is expected that all types of particles will be emitted by black hole evaporation, providing key evidence for any <a class="mw-redirect" href="/wiki/Grand_unified_theory" title="Grand unified theory">grand unified theory</a>. Above are the high energy particles produced in a gold ion collision on the <a href="/wiki/Relativistic_Heavy_Ion_Collider" title="Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider">RHIC</a>.</div>
786                        </div>
787                </div>
788                <p>
789                        In 1971, <a href="/wiki/Stephen_Hawking" title="Stephen Hawking">Stephen Hawking</a> showed under general conditions<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-103"><a href="#cite_note-103"><font size="2"><span>[</span>Note 1<span>]</span></font></a></sup> that the total area of the event horizons of any collection of classical black holes can never decrease, even if they collide and merge.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-104"><a href="#cite_note-104"><font size="2"><span>[</span>104<span>]</span></font></a></sup> This result now known as the <a class="mw-redirect" href="/wiki/Second_law_of_black_hole_mechanics" title="Second law of black hole mechanics">second law of black hole mechanics</a> is remarkably similar to the <a class="mw-redirect" href="/wiki/Second_Law_of_Thermodynamics" title="Second Law of Thermodynamics">Second Law of Thermodynamics</a>, which states that the total <a href="/wiki/Entropy" title="Entropy">entropy</a> of a system can never decrease. As a classical object with zero temperature it was assumed that black holes had zero entropy. If this were the case, the second law of thermodynamics would be violated by entropy-laden matter entering the black hole, resulting in a decrease of the total entropy of the universe. Therefore, <a href="/wiki/Jacob_Bekenstein" title="Jacob Bekenstein">Jacob Bekenstein</a> proposed that a black hole should have an entropy, and that it should be proportional to its horizon area.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-wald99_105-0"><a href="#cite_note-wald99-105"><font size="2"><span>[</span>105<span>]</span></font></a></sup></p>
790                <p>
791                        The link with the laws of thermodynamics was further strengthened by Hawking&#39;s discovery that <a href="/wiki/Quantum_field_theory" title="Quantum field theory">quantum field theory</a> predicts that a black hole radiates <a class="mw-redirect" href="/wiki/Blackbody_radiation" title="Blackbody radiation">blackbody radiation</a> at a constant temperature. This seemingly causes a violation of the second law of black hole mechanics, since the radiation will carry away energy from the black hole causing it to shrink. The radiation however also carries away entropy, and it can be proven under general assumptions that the sum of the entropy of the matter surrounding the black hole and one quarter of the area of the horizon as measured in <a href="/wiki/Planck_units" title="Planck units">planck units</a> is in fact always increasing. This allows the formulation of the <a class="mw-redirect" href="/wiki/First_law_of_black_hole_mechanics" title="First law of black hole mechanics">first law of black hole mechanics</a> as an analogue of the <a href="/wiki/First_law_of_thermodynamics" title="First law of thermodynamics">first law of thermodynamics</a>, with the mass acting as energy, the surface gravity as temperature and the area as entropy.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-wald99_105-1"><a href="#cite_note-wald99-105"><font size="2"><span>[</span>105<span>]</span></font></a></sup></p>
792                <p>
793                        One puzzling feature is that the entropy of a black hole scales with its area rather than with its volume, since entropy is normally an <a class="mw-redirect" href="/wiki/Extrinsic_property" title="Extrinsic property">extrinsic property</a> that scales linearly with the volume of the system. This odd property led <a class="mw-redirect" href="/wiki/Gerard_%27t_Hooft" title="Gerard 't Hooft">&#39;t Hooft</a> and <a href="/wiki/Leonard_Susskind" title="Leonard Susskind">Susskind</a> to propose the <a href="/wiki/Holographic_principle" title="Holographic principle">holographic principle</a>, which suggests that anything that happens in volume of spacetime can be described by data on the boundary of that volume.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-106"><a href="#cite_note-106"><font size="2"><span>[</span>106<span>]</span></font></a></sup></p>
794                <p>
795                        Although general relativity can be used to perform a semi-classical calculation of black hole entropy, this situation is theoretically unsatisfying. In <a href="/wiki/Statistical_mechanics" title="Statistical mechanics">statistical mechanics</a>, entropy is understood as counting the number of microscopic configurations of a system which have the same macroscopic qualities (such as <a href="/wiki/Mass" title="Mass">mass</a>, <a href="/wiki/Charge_(physics)" title="Charge (physics)">charge</a>, <a href="/wiki/Pressure" title="Pressure">pressure</a>, etc.). Without a satisfactory theory of <a href="/wiki/Quantum_gravity" title="Quantum gravity">quantum gravity</a>, one cannot perform such a computation for black holes. Some promise has been shown by <a href="/wiki/String_theory" title="String theory">string theory</a>, however, which posits that the microscopic degrees of freedom of the black hole are <a href="/wiki/D-brane" title="D-brane">D-branes</a>. By counting the states of D-branes with given charges and energy, the entropy for certain <a class="mw-redirect" href="/wiki/Supersymmetric" title="Supersymmetric">supersymmetric</a> black holes has been reproduced. Extending the region of validity of these calculations is an ongoing area of research.</p>
796                <h3>
797                        <span class="mw-headline" id="Black_hole_unitarity">Black hole unitarity</span></h3>
798                <div class="rellink relarticle mainarticle">
799                        Main article: <a href="/wiki/Black_hole_information_paradox" title="Black hole information paradox">Black hole information paradox</a></div>
800                <p>
801                        An open question in fundamental physics is the so-called information loss paradox, or <a href="/wiki/Black_hole_information_paradox" title="Black hole information paradox">black hole unitarity</a> paradox. Classically, the laws of physics are the same run forward or in reverse (<a href="/wiki/T-symmetry" title="T-symmetry">T-symmetry</a>). <a href="/wiki/Liouville%27s_theorem_(Hamiltonian)" title="Liouville's theorem (Hamiltonian)">Liouville&#39;s Theorem</a> dictates conservation of phase space volume, which can be thought of as &#39;conservation of information&#39;, so there is some problem even in classical (non-quantum general relativity) physics. In quantum mechanics, this corresponds to a vital property called <a href="/wiki/Unitarity_(physics)" title="Unitarity (physics)">unitarity</a>, which has to do with the conservation of probability (It can also be thought of as a conservation of quantum phase space volume as expressed by the <a href="/wiki/Density_matrix" title="Density matrix">density matrix</a>).<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-PlayDice000_107-0"><a href="#cite_note-PlayDice000-107"><font size="2"><span>[</span>107<span>]</span></font></a></sup></p>
802                <h2>
803                        <span class="mw-headline" id="See_also">See also</span></h2>
804                <table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="multicol" sizcache="0" sizset="8" style="width: 100%; background: none transparent scroll repeat 0% 0%">
805                        <tbody sizcache="0" sizset="8">
806                                <tr sizcache="0" sizset="8">
807                                        <td align="left" sizcache="0" sizset="8" valign="top">
808                                                <ul>
809                                                        <li>
810                                                                <a href="/wiki/Black_holes_in_fiction" title="Black holes in fiction">Black holes in fiction</a></li>
811                                                        <li>
812                                                                <a href="/wiki/Black_string" title="Black string">Black string</a></li>
813                                                        <li>
814                                                                <a href="/wiki/Kugelblitz_(astrophysics)" title="Kugelblitz (astrophysics)">Kugelblitz (astrophysics)</a></li>
815                                                        <li>
816                                                                <a href="/wiki/List_of_black_holes" title="List of black holes">List of black holes</a></li>
817                                                        <li>
818                                                                <a class="mw-redirect" href="/wiki/Susskind-Hawking_battle" title="Susskind-Hawking battle">Susskind-Hawking battle</a></li>
819                                                </ul>
820                                        </td>
821                                        <td align="left" sizcache="0" sizset="9" valign="top">
822                                                <div class="noprint tright portal" style="border-bottom: #aaa 1px solid; border-left: #aaa 1px solid; margin: 0.5em 0px 0.5em 0.5em; border-top: #aaa 1px solid; border-right: #aaa 1px solid">
823                                                        <table style="line-height: 110%; max-width: 175px; background: #f9f9f9; font-size: 85%">
824                                                                <tbody>
825                                                                        <tr>
826                                                                                <td>
827                                                                                        <a class="image" href="/wiki/File:He1523a.jpg"><img alt="He1523a.jpg" height="28" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5f/He1523a.jpg/24px-He1523a.jpg" width="24" /></a></td>
828                                                                                <td style="padding-bottom: 0px; padding-left: 0.2em; padding-right: 0.2em; padding-top: 0px">
829                                                                                        <i><b><a href="/wiki/Portal:Star" title="Portal:Star">Star portal</a></b></i></td>
830                                                                        </tr>
831                                                                </tbody>
832                                                        </table>
833                                                </div>
834                                                <ul>
835                                                        <li>
836                                                                <a href="/wiki/Timeline_of_black_hole_physics" title="Timeline of black hole physics">Timeline of black hole physics</a></li>
837                                                        <li>
838                                                                <a href="/wiki/White_hole" title="White hole">White hole</a></li>
839                                                        <li>
840                                                                <a href="/wiki/Wormhole" title="Wormhole">Wormhole</a></li>
841                                                </ul>
842                                        </td>
843                                </tr>
844                        </tbody>
845                </table>
846                <h2>
847                        <span class="mw-headline" id="Notes">Notes</span></h2>
848                <ol class="references">
849                        <li id="cite_note-103">
850                                <b><a href="#cite_ref-103">^</a></b> In particular, he assumed that all matter satisfies the <a class="mw-redirect" href="/wiki/Weak_energy_condition" title="Weak energy condition">weak energy condition</a>.</li>
851                </ol>
852                <h2>
853                        <span class="mw-headline" id="References">References</span></h2>
854                <div class="references-small references-column-width" style="-moz-column-width: 30em; column-width: 30em">
855                        <ol class="references">
856                                <li id="cite_note-0">
857                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-0">^</a></b> <span class="citation Journal" id="CITEREFDavies.2C_P._C._W.1978">Davies, P. C. W. (1978). <a class="external text" href="http://cosmos.asu.edu/publications/papers/ThermodynamicTheoryofBlackHoles%2034.pdf" rel="nofollow">&quot;Thermodynamics of Black Holes&quot;</a>. Rep. Prog. Phys. <i><b>41</b>: 1313&ndash;1355. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a class="external text" href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1088%2F0034-4885%2F41%2F8%2F004" rel="nofollow">10.1088/0034-4885/41/8/004</a><span class="printonly">. <a class="external free" href="http://cosmos.asu.edu/publications/papers/ThermodynamicTheoryofBlackHoles%2034.pdf" rel="nofollow">http://cosmos.asu.edu/publications/papers/ThermodynamicTheoryofBlackHoles%2034.pdf</a></span>.</i><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=Thermodynamics+of+Black+Holes&amp;rft.jtitle=%27%27Rep.+Prog.+Phys.&amp;rft.aulast=Davies%2C+P.+C.+W.&amp;rft.au=Davies%2C+P.+C.+W.&amp;rft.date=1978&amp;rft.volume=41&amp;rft.pages=1313%E2%80%931355&amp;rft_id=info:doi/10.1088%2F0034-4885%2F41%2F8%2F004&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fcosmos.asu.edu%2Fpublications%2Fpapers%2FThermodynamicTheoryofBlackHoles%252034.pdf&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span></span></li>
858                                <li id="cite_note-Michell1784-1">
859                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-Michell1784_1-0">^</a></b> <span class="citation Journal" id="CITEREFMichell.2C_J.1784">Michell, J. (1784). <a class="external text" href="http://www.jstor.org/pss/106576" rel="nofollow">&quot;On the Means of Discovering the Distance, Magnitude, &amp;c. of the Fixed Stars, in Consequence of the Diminution of the Velocity of Their Light, in Case Such a Diminution Should be Found to Take Place in any of Them, and Such Other Data Should be Procured from Observations, as Would be Farther Necessary for That Purpose&quot;</a>. <i>Phil. Trans. R. Soc. (London)</i> (Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Vol. 74) <b>74</b>: 35&ndash;57<span class="printonly">. <a class="external free" href="http://www.jstor.org/pss/106576" rel="nofollow">http://www.jstor.org/pss/106576</a></span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=On+the+Means+of+Discovering+the+Distance%2C+Magnitude%2C+%26c.+of+the+Fixed+Stars%2C+in+Consequence+of+the+Diminution+of+the+Velocity+of+Their+Light%2C+in+Case+Such+a+Diminution+Should+be+Found+to+Take+Place+in+any+of+Them%2C+and+Such+Other+Data+Should+be+Procured+from+Observations%2C+as+Would+be+Farther+Necessary+for+That+Purpose&amp;rft.jtitle=Phil.+Trans.+R.+Soc.+%28London%29&amp;rft.aulast=Michell%2C+J.&amp;rft.au=Michell%2C+J.&amp;rft.date=1784&amp;rft.volume=74&amp;rft.pages=35%E2%80%9357&amp;rft.pub=Philosophical+Transactions+of+the+Royal+Society+of+London%2C+Vol.+74&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.jstor.org%2Fpss%2F106576&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
860                                <li id="cite_note-2">
861                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-2">^</a></b> <span class="citation web"><a class="external text" href="http://library.thinkquest.org/25715/discovery/conceiving.htm#darkstars" rel="nofollow">&quot;Dark Stars (1783)&quot;</a>. <a class="mw-redirect" href="/wiki/Thinkquest" title="Thinkquest">Thinkquest</a>. 1999<span class="printonly">. <a class="external free" href="http://library.thinkquest.org/25715/discovery/conceiving.htm#darkstars" rel="nofollow">http://library.thinkquest.org/25715/discovery/conceiving.htm#darkstars</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2008-05-28</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Dark+Stars+%281783%29&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.date=1999&amp;rft.pub=%5B%5BThinkquest%5D%5D&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Flibrary.thinkquest.org%2F25715%2Fdiscovery%2Fconceiving.htm%23darkstars&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
862                                <li id="cite_note-3">
863                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-3">^</a></b> Laplace; see Israel, Werner (1987), &quot;Dark stars: the evolution of an idea&quot;, in Hawking, Stephen W. &amp; Israel, Werner, 300 Years of Gravitation, Cambridge University Press, Sec. 7.4</li>
864                                <li id="cite_note-Schwarzschild1916-4">
865                                        ^ <a href="#cite_ref-Schwarzschild1916_4-0"><sup><i><b><font size="2">a</font></b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Schwarzschild1916_4-1"><sup><i><b><font size="2">b</font></b></i></sup></a> <span class="citation Journal" id="CITEREFSchwarzschild1916"><a href="/wiki/Karl_Schwarzschild" title="Karl Schwarzschild">Schwarzschild, Karl</a> (1916). &quot;&Uuml;ber das Gravitationsfeld eines Massenpunktes nach der Einsteinschen Theorie&quot;. <i>Sitzungsber. Preuss. Akad. D. Wiss.</i>: 189&ndash;196.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=%C3%9Cber+das+Gravitationsfeld+eines+Massenpunktes+nach+der+Einsteinschen+Theorie&amp;rft.jtitle=Sitzungsber.+Preuss.+Akad.+D.+Wiss.&amp;rft.aulast=Schwarzschild&amp;rft.aufirst=Karl&amp;rft.au=Schwarzschild%2C%26%2332%3BKarl&amp;rft.date=1916&amp;rft.pages=189%E2%80%93196&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span> and <span class="citation Journal" id="CITEREFSchwarzschild1916"><a href="/wiki/Karl_Schwarzschild" title="Karl Schwarzschild">Schwarzschild, Karl</a> (1916). &quot;&Uuml;ber das Gravitationsfeld eines Kugel aus inkompressibler Fl&uuml;ssigkeit nach der Einsteinschen Theorie&quot;. <i>Sitzungsber. Preuss. Akad. D. Wiss.</i>: 424&ndash;434.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=%C3%9Cber+das+Gravitationsfeld+eines+Kugel+aus+inkompressibler+Fl%C3%BCssigkeit+nach+der+Einsteinschen+Theorie&amp;rft.jtitle=Sitzungsber.+Preuss.+Akad.+D.+Wiss.&amp;rft.aulast=Schwarzschild&amp;rft.aufirst=Karl&amp;rft.au=Schwarzschild%2C%26%2332%3BKarl&amp;rft.date=1916&amp;rft.pages=424%E2%80%93434&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
866                                <li id="cite_note-5">
867                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-5">^</a></b> <span class="citation Journal" id="CITEREFDroste.2C_J.1915">Droste, J. (1915). &quot;On the field of a single centre in Einstein&#39;s theory of gravitation&quot;. <i>Koninklijke Nederlandsche Akademie van Wetenschappen Proceedings</i> <b>17</b> (3): 998&ndash;1011.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=On+the+field+of+a+single+centre+in+Einstein%27s+theory+of+gravitation&amp;rft.jtitle=Koninklijke+Nederlandsche+Akademie+van+Wetenschappen+Proceedings&amp;rft.aulast=Droste%2C+J.&amp;rft.au=Droste%2C+J.&amp;rft.date=1915&amp;rft.volume=17&amp;rft.issue=3&amp;rft.pages=998%E2%80%931011&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
868                                <li id="cite_note-HooftHist-6">
869                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-HooftHist_6-0">^</a></b> <span class="citation book">&#39;t Hooft, G. (2009). <a class="external text" href="http://www.phys.uu.nl/~thooft/lectures/blackholes/BH_lecturenotes.pdf" rel="nofollow"><i>Introduction to the Theory of Black Holes</i></a>. pp.&nbsp;47&ndash;48<span class="printonly">. <a class="external free" href="http://www.phys.uu.nl/~thooft/lectures/blackholes/BH_lecturenotes.pdf" rel="nofollow">http://www.phys.uu.nl/~thooft/lectures/blackholes/BH_lecturenotes.pdf</a></span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Introduction+to+the+Theory+of+Black+Holes&amp;rft.aulast=%27t+Hooft%2C+G.&amp;rft.au=%27t+Hooft%2C+G.&amp;rft.date=2009&amp;rft.pages=pp.%26nbsp%3B47%E2%80%9348&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.phys.uu.nl%2F%7Ethooft%2Flectures%2Fblackholes%2FBH_lecturenotes.pdf&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
870                                <li id="cite_note-7">
871                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-7">^</a></b> <span class="citation Journal" id="CITEREFDetweiler.2C_S.1981">Detweiler, S. (1981). &quot;Resource letter BH-1: Black holes&quot;. <i>American Journal of Physics</i> <b>49</b> (5, pp): 394&ndash;400. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a class="external text" href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1119%2F1.12686" rel="nofollow">10.1119/1.12686</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=Resource+letter+BH-1%3A+Black+holes&amp;rft.jtitle=American+Journal+of+Physics&amp;rft.aulast=Detweiler%2C+S.&amp;rft.au=Detweiler%2C+S.&amp;rft.date=1981&amp;rft.volume=49&amp;rft.issue=5%2C+pp&amp;rft.pages=394%E2%80%93400&amp;rft_id=info:doi/10.1119%2F1.12686&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
872                                <li id="cite_note-8">
873                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-8">^</a></b> <span class="citation Journal" id="CITEREFOppenheimer.2C_J._R._and_Volkoff.2C_G._M.1939">Oppenheimer, J. R. and Volkoff, G. M. (1939-01-03). <a class="external text" href="http://prola.aps.org/abstract/PR/v55/i4/p374_1" rel="nofollow">&quot;On Massive Neutron Cores&quot;</a>. <i>Physical Review</i> <b>55</b> (4): 374&ndash;381. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a class="external text" href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1103%2FPhysRev.55.374" rel="nofollow">10.1103/PhysRev.55.374</a><span class="printonly">. <a class="external free" href="http://prola.aps.org/abstract/PR/v55/i4/p374_1" rel="nofollow">http://prola.aps.org/abstract/PR/v55/i4/p374_1</a></span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=On+Massive+Neutron+Cores&amp;rft.jtitle=Physical+Review&amp;rft.aulast=Oppenheimer%2C+J.+R.+and+Volkoff%2C+G.+M.&amp;rft.au=Oppenheimer%2C+J.+R.+and+Volkoff%2C+G.+M.&amp;rft.date=1939-01-03&amp;rft.volume=55&amp;rft.issue=4&amp;rft.pages=374%E2%80%93381&amp;rft_id=info:doi/10.1103%2FPhysRev.55.374&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fprola.aps.org%2Fabstract%2FPR%2Fv55%2Fi4%2Fp374_1&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
874                                <li id="cite_note-9">
875                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-9">^</a></b> <span class="citation Journal" id="CITEREFRuffini.2C_Remo_and_Wheeler.2C_John_A.1971">Ruffini, Remo and Wheeler, John A. (January 1971). <a class="external text" href="http://authors.library.caltech.edu/14972/1/Ruffini2009p1645Phys_Today.pdf" rel="nofollow">&quot;Introducing the black hole&quot;</a>. <i>Physics Today</i>: 30&ndash;41<span class="printonly">. <a class="external free" href="http://authors.library.caltech.edu/14972/1/Ruffini2009p1645Phys_Today.pdf" rel="nofollow">http://authors.library.caltech.edu/14972/1/Ruffini2009p1645Phys_Today.pdf</a></span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=Introducing+the+black+hole&amp;rft.jtitle=Physics+Today&amp;rft.aulast=Ruffini%2C+Remo+and+Wheeler%2C+John+A.&amp;rft.au=Ruffini%2C+Remo+and+Wheeler%2C+John+A.&amp;rft.date=January+1971&amp;rft.pages=30%E2%80%9341&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fauthors.library.caltech.edu%2F14972%2F1%2FRuffini2009p1645Phys_Today.pdf&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
876                                <li id="cite_note-10">
877                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-10">^</a></b> <span class="citation Journal" id="CITEREFFinkelstein1958">Finkelstein, David (1958). &quot;Past-Future Asymmetry of the Gravitational Field of a Point Particle&quot;. <i>Phys. Rev.</i> <b>110</b>: 965&ndash;967. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a class="external text" href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1103%2FPhysRev.110.965" rel="nofollow">10.1103/PhysRev.110.965</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=Past-Future+Asymmetry+of+the+Gravitational+Field+of+a+Point+Particle&amp;rft.jtitle=Phys.+Rev.&amp;rft.aulast=Finkelstein&amp;rft.aufirst=David&amp;rft.au=Finkelstein%2C%26%2332%3BDavid&amp;rft.date=1958&amp;rft.volume=110&amp;rft.pages=965%E2%80%93967&amp;rft_id=info:doi/10.1103%2FPhysRev.110.965&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
878                                <li id="cite_note-11">
879                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-11">^</a></b> <span class="citation Journal" id="CITEREFHewishBellPilkingtonScott1968">Hewish, Antony; Bell, S. J.; Pilkington, J. D. H.; Scott, P. F.; Collins, R. A. (1968). <a class="external text" href="http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v235/n5332/abs/235037a0.html" rel="nofollow">&quot;Observation of a Rapidly Pulsating Radio Source&quot;</a>. <i>Nature</i> <b>217</b>: 709&ndash;713. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a class="external text" href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1038%2F217709a0" rel="nofollow">10.1038/217709a0</a><span class="printonly">. <a class="external free" href="http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v235/n5332/abs/235037a0.html" rel="nofollow">http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v235/n5332/abs/235037a0.html</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2007-07-06</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=Observation+of+a+Rapidly+Pulsating+Radio+Source&amp;rft.jtitle=Nature&amp;rft.aulast=Hewish&amp;rft.aufirst=Antony&amp;rft.au=Hewish%2C%26%2332%3BAntony&amp;rft.au=Bell%2C%26%2332%3BS.+J.&amp;rft.au=Pilkington%2C%26%2332%3BJ.+D.+H.&amp;rft.au=Scott%2C%26%2332%3BP.+F.&amp;rft.au=Collins%2C%26%2332%3BR.+A.&amp;rft.date=1968&amp;rft.volume=217&amp;rft.pages=709%E2%80%93713&amp;rft_id=info:doi/10.1038%2F217709a0&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.nature.com%2Fnature%2Fjournal%2Fv235%2Fn5332%2Fabs%2F235037a0.html&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
880                                <li id="cite_note-12">
881                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-12">^</a></b> <span class="citation Journal" id="CITEREFPilkingtonHewishBellCole1968">Pilkington, J D H; Hewish, A.; Bell, S. J.; Cole, T. W. (1968). <a class="external text" href="http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v218/n5137/pdf/218126a0.pdf" rel="nofollow">&quot;Observations of some further Pulsed Radio Sources&quot;</a>. <i>Nature</i> <b>218</b>: 126&ndash;129. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a class="external text" href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1038%2F218126a0" rel="nofollow">10.1038/218126a0</a><span class="printonly">. <a class="external free" href="http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v218/n5137/pdf/218126a0.pdf" rel="nofollow">http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v218/n5137/pdf/218126a0.pdf</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2007-07-06</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=Observations+of+some+further+Pulsed+Radio+Sources&amp;rft.jtitle=Nature&amp;rft.aulast=Pilkington&amp;rft.aufirst=J+D+H&amp;rft.au=Pilkington%2C%26%2332%3BJ+D+H&amp;rft.au=Hewish%2C%26%2332%3BA.&amp;rft.au=Bell%2C%26%2332%3BS.+J.&amp;rft.au=Cole%2C%26%2332%3BT.+W.&amp;rft.date=1968&amp;rft.volume=218&amp;rft.pages=126%E2%80%93129&amp;rft_id=info:doi/10.1038%2F218126a0&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.nature.com%2Fnature%2Fjournal%2Fv218%2Fn5137%2Fpdf%2F218126a0.pdf&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
882                                <li id="cite_note-13">
883                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-13">^</a></b> <span class="citation Journal">Newman, E. T.; Couch, E.; Chinnapared, K.; Exton, A.; Prakash, A.; Torrence, R. (1965). &quot;Metric of a Rotating, Charged Mass&quot;. <i>Journal of Mathematical Physics</i> <b>6</b>: 918. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a class="external text" href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1063%2F1.1704351" rel="nofollow">10.1063/1.1704351</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=Metric+of+a+Rotating%2C+Charged+Mass&amp;rft.jtitle=Journal+of+Mathematical+Physics&amp;rft.aulast=Newman&amp;rft.aufirst=E.+T.&amp;rft.au=Newman%2C%26%2332%3BE.+T.&amp;rft.au=Couch%2C%26%2332%3BE.&amp;rft.au=Chinnapared%2C%26%2332%3BK.&amp;rft.au=Exton%2C%26%2332%3BA.&amp;rft.au=Prakash%2C%26%2332%3BA.&amp;rft.au=Torrence%2C%26%2332%3BR.&amp;rft.date=1965&amp;rft.volume=6&amp;rft.pages=918&amp;rft_id=info:doi/10.1063%2F1.1704351&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span> <span class="plainlinks noprint" style="font-size: smaller"><a class="external text" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:Cite_doi/10.1063.2F1.1704351&amp;action=edit&amp;editintro=Template:Cite_doi/editintro2" rel="nofollow"><font size="2">edit</font></a></span></li>
884                                <li id="cite_note-14">
885                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-14">^</a></b> <span class="citation Journal">Israel, W. (1967). &quot;Event Horizons in Static Vacuum Space-Times&quot;. <i>Physical Review</i> <b>164</b>: 1776. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a class="external text" href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1103%2FPhysRev.164.1776" rel="nofollow">10.1103/PhysRev.164.1776</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=Event+Horizons+in+Static+Vacuum+Space-Times&amp;rft.jtitle=Physical+Review&amp;rft.aulast=Israel&amp;rft.aufirst=W.&amp;rft.au=Israel%2C%26%2332%3BW.&amp;rft.date=1967&amp;rft.volume=164&amp;rft.pages=1776&amp;rft_id=info:doi/10.1103%2FPhysRev.164.1776&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span> <span class="plainlinks noprint" style="font-size: smaller"><a class="external text" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:Cite_doi/10.1103.2FPhysRev.164.1776&amp;action=edit&amp;editintro=Template:Cite_doi/editintro2" rel="nofollow"><font size="2">edit</font></a></span></li>
886                                <li id="cite_note-15">
887                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-15">^</a></b> <span class="citation Journal">Carter, B. (1971). &quot;Axisymmetric Black Hole Has Only Two Degrees of Freedom&quot;. <i>Physical Review Letters</i> <b>26</b>: 331. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a class="external text" href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1103%2FPhysRevLett.26.331" rel="nofollow">10.1103/PhysRevLett.26.331</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=Axisymmetric+Black+Hole+Has+Only+Two+Degrees+of+Freedom&amp;rft.jtitle=Physical+Review+Letters&amp;rft.aulast=Carter&amp;rft.aufirst=B.&amp;rft.au=Carter%2C%26%2332%3BB.&amp;rft.date=1971&amp;rft.volume=26&amp;rft.pages=331&amp;rft_id=info:doi/10.1103%2FPhysRevLett.26.331&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span> <span class="plainlinks noprint" style="font-size: smaller"><a class="external text" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:Cite_doi/10.1103.2FPhysRevLett.26.331&amp;action=edit&amp;editintro=Template:Cite_doi/editintro2" rel="nofollow"><font size="2">edit</font></a></span></li>
888                                <li id="cite_note-16">
889                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-16">^</a></b> <span class="citation book">Carter, B. (1977). &quot;The vacuum black hole uniqueness theorem and its conceivable generalisations.&quot;. <i>Proceedings of the 1st Marcel Grossmann meeting on general relativity</i>. pp.&nbsp;243&ndash;254.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=The+vacuum+black+hole+uniqueness+theorem+and+its+conceivable+generalisations.&amp;rft.atitle=Proceedings+of+the+1st+Marcel+Grossmann+meeting+on+general+relativity&amp;rft.aulast=Carter&amp;rft.aufirst=B.&amp;rft.au=Carter%2C%26%2332%3BB.&amp;rft.date=1977&amp;rft.pages=pp.%26nbsp%3B243%E2%80%93254&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
890                                <li id="cite_note-17">
891                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-17">^</a></b> <span class="citation Journal">Robinson, D. (1975). &quot;Uniqueness of the Kerr Black Hole&quot;. <i>Physical Review Letters</i> <b>34</b>: 905. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a class="external text" href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1103%2FPhysRevLett.34.905" rel="nofollow">10.1103/PhysRevLett.34.905</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=Uniqueness+of+the+Kerr+Black+Hole&amp;rft.jtitle=Physical+Review+Letters&amp;rft.aulast=Robinson&amp;rft.aufirst=D.&amp;rft.au=Robinson%2C%26%2332%3BD.&amp;rft.date=1975&amp;rft.volume=34&amp;rft.pages=905&amp;rft_id=info:doi/10.1103%2FPhysRevLett.34.905&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span> <span class="plainlinks noprint" style="font-size: smaller"><a class="external text" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:Cite_doi/10.1103.2FPhysRevLett.34.905&amp;action=edit&amp;editintro=Template:Cite_doi/editintro2" rel="nofollow"><font size="2">edit</font></a></span></li>
892                                <li id="cite_note-HeuslerNoHair-18">
893                                        ^ <a href="#cite_ref-HeuslerNoHair_18-0"><sup><i><b><font size="2">a</font></b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-HeuslerNoHair_18-1"><sup><i><b><font size="2">b</font></b></i></sup></a> <span class="citation Journal" id="CITEREFHeusler1998">Heusler, M. (1998). <a class="external text" href="http://www.livingreviews.org/Articles/Volume1/1998-6heusler/" rel="nofollow">&quot;Stationary Black Holes: Uniqueness and Beyond&quot;</a>. <i>Living Rev. Relativity</i> <b>1</b> (6)<span class="printonly">. <a class="external free" href="http://www.livingreviews.org/Articles/Volume1/1998-6heusler/" rel="nofollow">http://www.livingreviews.org/Articles/Volume1/1998-6heusler/</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved {{subst:today}}</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=Stationary+Black+Holes%3A+Uniqueness+and+Beyond&amp;rft.jtitle=Living+Rev.+Relativity&amp;rft.aulast=Heusler&amp;rft.aufirst=M.&amp;rft.au=Heusler%2C%26%2332%3BM.&amp;rft.date=1998&amp;rft.volume=1&amp;rft.issue=6&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.livingreviews.org%2FArticles%2FVolume1%2F1998-6heusler%2F&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
894                                <li id="cite_note-penrose1965-19">
895                                        ^ <a href="#cite_ref-penrose1965_19-0"><sup><i><b><font size="2">a</font></b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-penrose1965_19-1"><sup><i><b><font size="2">b</font></b></i></sup></a> <span class="citation Journal">Penrose, R. (1965). &quot;Gravitational Collapse and Space-Time Singularities&quot;. <i>Physical Review Letters</i> <b>14</b>: 57. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a class="external text" href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1103%2FPhysRevLett.14.57" rel="nofollow">10.1103/PhysRevLett.14.57</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=Gravitational+Collapse+and+Space-Time+Singularities&amp;rft.jtitle=Physical+Review+Letters&amp;rft.aulast=Penrose&amp;rft.aufirst=R.&amp;rft.au=Penrose%2C%26%2332%3BR.&amp;rft.date=1965&amp;rft.volume=14&amp;rft.pages=57&amp;rft_id=info:doi/10.1103%2FPhysRevLett.14.57&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span> <span class="plainlinks noprint" style="font-size: smaller"><a class="external text" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:Cite_doi/10.1103.2FPhysRevLett.14.57&amp;action=edit&amp;editintro=Template:Cite_doi/editintro2" rel="nofollow"><font size="2">edit</font></a></span></li>
896                                <li id="cite_note-20">
897                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-20">^</a></b> <span class="citation Journal">Ford, L. H. (2003). <i>International Journal of Theoretical Physics</i> <b>42</b>: 1219&ndash;1227. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a class="external text" href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1023%2FA%3A1025754515197" rel="nofollow">10.1023/A:1025754515197</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.jtitle=International+Journal+of+Theoretical+Physics&amp;rft.aulast=Ford&amp;rft.aufirst=L.+H.&amp;rft.au=Ford%2C%26%2332%3BL.+H.&amp;rft.date=2003&amp;rft.volume=42&amp;rft.pages=1219%E2%80%931227&amp;rft_id=info:doi/10.1023%2FA%3A1025754515197&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span> <span class="plainlinks noprint" style="font-size: smaller"><a class="external text" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:Cite_doi/10.1023.2FA:1025754515197&amp;action=edit&amp;editintro=Template:Cite_doi/editintro2" rel="nofollow"><font size="2">edit</font></a></span></li>
898                                <li id="cite_note-21">
899                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-21">^</a></b> <span class="citation Journal" id="CITEREFBardeenCarterHawking1973">Bardeen, J.M.; Carter, B.; Hawking, S.W. (1973). <a class="external text" href="http://projecteuclid.org/euclid.cmp/1103858973" rel="nofollow">&quot;The four laws of black hole mechanics&quot;</a>. <i>Comm. Math. Phys.</i> <b>31</b> (2): 161&ndash;170.. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a class="external text" href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1007%2FBF01645742" rel="nofollow">10.1007/BF01645742</a><span class="printonly">. <a class="external free" href="http://projecteuclid.org/euclid.cmp/1103858973" rel="nofollow">http://projecteuclid.org/euclid.cmp/1103858973</a></span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=The+four+laws+of+black+hole+mechanics&amp;rft.jtitle=Comm.+Math.+Phys.&amp;rft.aulast=Bardeen&amp;rft.aufirst=J.M.&amp;rft.au=Bardeen%2C%26%2332%3BJ.M.&amp;rft.au=Carter%2C%26%2332%3BB.&amp;rft.au=Hawking%2C%26%2332%3BS.W.&amp;rft.date=1973&amp;rft.volume=31&amp;rft.issue=2&amp;rft.pages=161%E2%80%93170.&amp;rft_id=info:doi/10.1007%2FBF01645742&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fprojecteuclid.org%2Feuclid.cmp%2F1103858973&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
900                                <li id="cite_note-Hawking1974-22">
901                                        ^ <a href="#cite_ref-Hawking1974_22-0"><sup><i><b><font size="2">a</font></b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Hawking1974_22-1"><sup><i><b><font size="2">b</font></b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Hawking1974_22-2"><sup><i><b><font size="2">c</font></b></i></sup></a> <span class="citation Journal" id="CITEREFHawking1974">Hawking, S.W. (1974). <a class="external text" href="http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v248/n5443/abs/248030a0.html" rel="nofollow">&quot;Black hole explosions?&quot;</a>. <i>Nature</i> <b>248</b>: 30&ndash;31. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a class="external text" href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1038%2F248030a0" rel="nofollow">10.1038/248030a0</a><span class="printonly">. <a class="external free" href="http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v248/n5443/abs/248030a0.html" rel="nofollow">http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v248/n5443/abs/248030a0.html</a></span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=Black+hole+explosions%3F&amp;rft.jtitle=Nature&amp;rft.aulast=Hawking&amp;rft.aufirst=S.W.&amp;rft.au=Hawking%2C%26%2332%3BS.W.&amp;rft.date=1974&amp;rft.volume=248&amp;rft.pages=30%E2%80%9331&amp;rft_id=info:doi/10.1038%2F248030a0&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.nature.com%2Fnature%2Fjournal%2Fv248%2Fn5443%2Fabs%2F248030a0.html&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
902                                <li id="cite_note-23">
903                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-23">^</a></b> <span class="citation web">Michael Quinion. <a class="external text" href="http://www.worldwidewords.org/topicalwords/tw-bla1.htm" rel="nofollow">&quot;Black Hole&quot;</a>. <i>World Wide Words</i><span class="printonly">. <a class="external free" href="http://www.worldwidewords.org/topicalwords/tw-bla1.htm" rel="nofollow">http://www.worldwidewords.org/topicalwords/tw-bla1.htm</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2008-06-17</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Black+Hole&amp;rft.atitle=World+Wide+Words&amp;rft.aulast=Michael+Quinion&amp;rft.au=Michael+Quinion&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.worldwidewords.org%2Ftopicalwords%2Ftw-bla1.htm&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
904                                <li id="cite_note-24">
905                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-24">^</a></b> <a href="#CITEREFCarroll2004">Carroll 2004</a>, p.&nbsp;253</li>
906                                <li id="cite_note-25">
907                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-25">^</a></b> <span class="citation book"><i>Black Holes, The Membrane Paradigm</i>. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&nbsp;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/9780300037708" title="Special:BookSources/9780300037708">9780300037708</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Black+Holes%2C+The+Membrane+Paradigm&amp;rft.isbn=9780300037708&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
908                                <li id="cite_note-26">
909                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-26">^</a></b> <span class="citation web">Anderson, Warren G. (1996). <a class="external text" href="http://math.ucr.edu/home/baez/physics/Relativity/BlackHoles/info_loss.html" rel="nofollow">&quot;The Black Hole Information Loss Problem&quot;</a><span class="printonly">. <a class="external free" href="http://math.ucr.edu/home/baez/physics/Relativity/BlackHoles/info_loss.html" rel="nofollow">http://math.ucr.edu/home/baez/physics/Relativity/BlackHoles/info_loss.html</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2009-03-24</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=The+Black+Hole+Information+Loss+Problem&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.aulast=Anderson&amp;rft.aufirst=Warren+G.&amp;rft.au=Anderson%2C%26%2332%3BWarren+G.&amp;rft.date=1996&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fmath.ucr.edu%2Fhome%2Fbaez%2Fphysics%2FRelativity%2FBlackHoles%2Finfo_loss.html&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
910                                <li id="cite_note-27">
911                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-27">^</a></b> John Preskill(1994)&quot;<a class="external text" href="http://www.theory.caltech.edu/~preskill/talks/blackholes.pdf" rel="nofollow">Black holes and information: A crisis in quantum physics</a>&quot;</li>
912                                <li id="cite_note-28">
913                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-28">^</a></b> Daniel Carmody(2008)&quot;<a class="external text" href="http://www.carmodyfamily.com/bnb/QCI_Paper.pdf" rel="nofollow">The Fate of Quantum Information in a Black Hole</a>&quot;</li>
914                                <li id="cite_note-29">
915                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-29">^</a></b> <span class="citation web"><a class="external text" href="http://myweb.lsbu.ac.uk/~whittyr/MathSci/TheoremOfTheDay/CombinatorialTheory/Birkhoff/TotDBirkhoff.pdf" rel="nofollow">&quot;Garrett Birkhoff&rsquo;s Theorem&quot;</a><span class="printonly">. <a class="external free" href="http://myweb.lsbu.ac.uk/~whittyr/MathSci/TheoremOfTheDay/CombinatorialTheory/Birkhoff/TotDBirkhoff.pdf" rel="nofollow">http://myweb.lsbu.ac.uk/~whittyr/MathSci/TheoremOfTheDay/CombinatorialTheory/Birkhoff/TotDBirkhoff.pdf</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2009-03-25</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Garrett+Birkhoff%E2%80%99s+Theorem&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fmyweb.lsbu.ac.uk%2F%7Ewhittyr%2FMathSci%2FTheoremOfTheDay%2FCombinatorialTheory%2FBirkhoff%2FTotDBirkhoff.pdf&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
916                                <li id="cite_note-30">
917                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-30">^</a></b> <span class="citation web"><a class="external text" href="http://astro.airynothing.com/2006/02/black_holes_do_not_suck.html" rel="nofollow">&quot;Black Holes do not suck!&quot;</a>. 2006-02-17<span class="printonly">. <a class="external free" href="http://astro.airynothing.com/2006/02/black_holes_do_not_suck.html" rel="nofollow">http://astro.airynothing.com/2006/02/black_holes_do_not_suck.html</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2009-03-25</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Black+Holes+do+not+suck%21&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.date=2006-02-17&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fastro.airynothing.com%2F2006%2F02%2Fblack_holes_do_not_suck.html&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
918                                <li id="cite_note-31">
919                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-31">^</a></b> For a review see <span class="citation web">Wald, Robert. M. (1997). <a class="external text" href="http://arxiv.org/abs/gr-qc/9710068" rel="nofollow">&quot;Gravitational Collapse and Cosmic Censorship&quot;</a><span class="printonly">. <a class="external free" href="http://arxiv.org/abs/gr-qc/9710068" rel="nofollow">http://arxiv.org/abs/gr-qc/9710068</a></span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Gravitational+Collapse+and+Cosmic+Censorship&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.aulast=Wald&amp;rft.aufirst=Robert.+M.&amp;rft.au=Wald%2C%26%2332%3BRobert.+M.&amp;rft.date=1997&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Farxiv.org%2Fabs%2Fgr-qc%2F9710068&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
920                                <li id="cite_note-32">
921                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-32">^</a></b> For a discussion of these numerical simulations see <span class="citation Journal" id="CITEREFBerger2002">Berger, Beverly K. (2002). <a class="external text" href="http://www.livingreviews.org/lrr-2002-1" rel="nofollow">&quot;Numerical Approaches to Spacetime Singularities&quot;</a>. <i>Living Rev. Relativity</i> <b>5</b><span class="printonly">. <a class="external free" href="http://www.livingreviews.org/lrr-2002-1" rel="nofollow">http://www.livingreviews.org/lrr-2002-1</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2007-08-04</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=Numerical+Approaches+to+Spacetime+Singularities&amp;rft.jtitle=Living+Rev.+Relativity&amp;rft.aulast=Berger&amp;rft.aufirst=Beverly+K.&amp;rft.au=Berger%2C%26%2332%3BBeverly+K.&amp;rft.date=2002&amp;rft.volume=5&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.livingreviews.org%2Flrr-2002-1&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
922                                <li id="cite_note-33">
923                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-33">^</a></b> <span class="citation Journal" id="CITEREFMcClintockShafeeNarayanRemillard2006">McClintock, Jeffrey E.; Shafee, Rebecca; Narayan, Ramesh; Remillard, Ronald A.; Davis, Shane W.; Li, Li-Xin (2006). <a class="external text" href="http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0606076" rel="nofollow">&quot;The Spin of the Near-Extreme Kerr Black Hole GRS 1915+105&quot;</a>. <i>Astrophys.J.</i> <b>652</b>: 518&ndash;539. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a class="external text" href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1086%2F508457" rel="nofollow">10.1086/508457</a><span class="printonly">. <a class="external free" href="http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0606076" rel="nofollow">http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0606076</a></span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=The+Spin+of+the+Near-Extreme+Kerr+Black+Hole+GRS+1915%2B105&amp;rft.jtitle=Astrophys.J.&amp;rft.aulast=McClintock&amp;rft.aufirst=Jeffrey+E.&amp;rft.au=McClintock%2C%26%2332%3BJeffrey+E.&amp;rft.au=Shafee%2C%26%2332%3BRebecca&amp;rft.au=Narayan%2C%26%2332%3BRamesh&amp;rft.au=Remillard%2C%26%2332%3BRonald+A.&amp;rft.au=Davis%2C%26%2332%3BShane+W.&amp;rft.au=Li%2C%26%2332%3BLi-Xin&amp;rft.date=2006&amp;rft.volume=652&amp;rft.pages=518%E2%80%93539&amp;rft_id=info:doi/10.1086%2F508457&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Farxiv.org%2Fabs%2Fastro-ph%2F0606076&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
924                                <li id="cite_note-34">
925                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-34">^</a></b> <a href="#CITEREFWheeler2007">Wheeler 2007</a>, p.&nbsp;179</li>
926                                <li id="cite_note-35">
927                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-35">^</a></b> <span class="citation web"><a class="external text" href="http://archive.ncsa.uiuc.edu/Cyberia/NumRel/BlackHoleAnat.html" rel="nofollow">&quot;Anatomy of a Black Hole&quot;</a><span class="printonly">. <a class="external free" href="http://archive.ncsa.uiuc.edu/Cyberia/NumRel/BlackHoleAnat.html" rel="nofollow">http://archive.ncsa.uiuc.edu/Cyberia/NumRel/BlackHoleAnat.html</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2009-03-25</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Anatomy+of+a+Black+Hole&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Farchive.ncsa.uiuc.edu%2FCyberia%2FNumRel%2FBlackHoleAnat.html&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
928                                <li id="cite_note-36">
929                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-36">^</a></b> <a href="#CITEREFCarroll2004">Carroll 2004</a>, p.&nbsp;217</li>
930                                <li id="cite_note-37">
931                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-37">^</a></b> <a href="#CITEREFCarroll2004">Carroll 2004</a>, p.&nbsp;218</li>
932                                <li id="cite_note-38">
933                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-38">^</a></b> <span class="citation web"><a class="external text" href="http://nrumiano.free.fr/Estars/int_bh.html" rel="nofollow">&quot;Inside a black hole&quot;</a><span class="printonly">. <a class="external free" href="http://nrumiano.free.fr/Estars/int_bh.html" rel="nofollow">http://nrumiano.free.fr/Estars/int_bh.html</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2009-03-26</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Inside+a+black+hole&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fnrumiano.free.fr%2FEstars%2Fint_bh.html&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
934                                <li id="cite_note-39">
935                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-39">^</a></b> <a href="#CITEREFCarroll2004">Carroll 2004</a>, p.&nbsp;222</li>
936                                <li id="cite_note-40">
937                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-40">^</a></b> <span class="citation web"><a class="external text" href="http://www.physics.eku.edu/Yoder/l16_BH.htm" rel="nofollow">&quot;Black Holes&quot;</a><span class="printonly">. <a class="external free" href="http://www.physics.eku.edu/Yoder/l16_BH.htm" rel="nofollow">http://www.physics.eku.edu/Yoder/l16_BH.htm</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2009-03-25</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Black+Holes&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.physics.eku.edu%2FYoder%2Fl16_BH.htm&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
938                                <li id="cite_note-41">
939                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-41">^</a></b> <span class="citation web"><a class="external text" href="http://www.ias.ac.in/jarch/pramana/51/693-698.pdf" rel="nofollow">&quot;Physical nature of the event horizon&quot;</a><span class="printonly">. <a class="external free" href="http://www.ias.ac.in/jarch/pramana/51/693-698.pdf" rel="nofollow">http://www.ias.ac.in/jarch/pramana/51/693-698.pdf</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2009-03-25</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Physical+nature+of+the+event+horizon&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ias.ac.in%2Fjarch%2Fpramana%2F51%2F693-698.pdf&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
940                                <li id="cite_note-42">
941                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-42">^</a></b> <a href="#CITEREFCarroll2004">Carroll 2004</a>, p.&nbsp;205</li>
942                                <li id="cite_note-43">
943                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-43">^</a></b> <a href="#CITEREFCarroll2004">Carroll 2004</a>, p.&nbsp;264&ndash;265</li>
944                                <li id="cite_note-44">
945                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-44">^</a></b> <a href="#CITEREFCarroll2004">Carroll 2004</a>, p.&nbsp;252</li>
946                                <li id="cite_note-45">
947                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-45">^</a></b> <a href="#CITEREFCarroll2004">Carroll 2004</a>, p.&nbsp;237 Exercise 3.</li>
948                                <li id="cite_note-46">
949                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-46">^</a></b> <a href="#CITEREFWheeler2007">Wheeler 2007</a>, p.&nbsp;182</li>
950                                <li id="cite_note-47">
951                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-47">^</a></b> <a href="#CITEREFCarroll2004">Carroll 2004</a>, p.&nbsp;257&ndash;259 and 265&ndash;266</li>
952                                <li id="cite_note-48">
953                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-48">^</a></b> <span class="citation Journal" id="CITEREFDrozIsraelMorsink1996">Droz, S.; Israel, W.; Morsink, S.M. (1996). &quot;Black holes: the inside story&quot;. <i>Physics World</i> <b>9</b>: 34&ndash;37.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=Black+holes%3A+the+inside+story&amp;rft.jtitle=Physics+World&amp;rft.aulast=Droz&amp;rft.aufirst=S.&amp;rft.au=Droz%2C%26%2332%3BS.&amp;rft.au=Israel%2C%26%2332%3BW.&amp;rft.au=Morsink%2C%26%2332%3BS.M.&amp;rft.date=1996&amp;rft.volume=9&amp;rft.pages=34%E2%80%9337&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
954                                <li id="cite_note-49">
955                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-49">^</a></b> <a href="#CITEREFCarroll2004">Carroll 2004</a>, p.&nbsp;266</li>
956                                <li id="cite_note-50">
957                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-50">^</a></b> <span class="citation Journal">Poisson, E.; Israel, W. (1990). &quot;Internal structure of black holes&quot;. <i>Physical Review D</i> <b>41</b>: 1796. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a class="external text" href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1103%2FPhysRevD.41.1796" rel="nofollow">10.1103/PhysRevD.41.1796</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=Internal+structure+of+black+holes&amp;rft.jtitle=Physical+Review+D&amp;rft.aulast=Poisson&amp;rft.aufirst=E.&amp;rft.au=Poisson%2C%26%2332%3BE.&amp;rft.au=Israel%2C%26%2332%3BW.&amp;rft.date=1990&amp;rft.volume=41&amp;rft.pages=1796&amp;rft_id=info:doi/10.1103%2FPhysRevD.41.1796&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span> <span class="plainlinks noprint" style="font-size: smaller"><a class="external text" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:Cite_doi/10.1103.2FPhysRevD.41.1796&amp;action=edit&amp;editintro=Template:Cite_doi/editintro2" rel="nofollow"><font size="2">edit</font></a></span></li>
958                                <li id="cite_note-51">
959                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-51">^</a></b> <span class="citation web">Giamb�o, Roberto. <a class="external text" href="http://www.mat.unb.br/~matcont/28_8.pdf" rel="nofollow">&quot;The geometry of gravitational collapse&quot;</a><span class="printonly">. <a class="external free" href="http://www.mat.unb.br/~matcont/28_8.pdf" rel="nofollow">http://www.mat.unb.br/~matcont/28_8.pdf</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2009-03-26</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=The+geometry+of+gravitational+collapse&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.aulast=Giamb%EF%BF%BDo&amp;rft.aufirst=Roberto&amp;rft.au=Giamb%EF%BF%BDo%2C%26%2332%3BRoberto&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.mat.unb.br%2F%7Ematcont%2F28_8.pdf&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
960                                <li id="cite_note-52">
961                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-52">^</a></b> <span class="citation web"><a class="external text" href="http://www.damtp.cam.ac.uk/user/gr/public/bh_hawk.html" rel="nofollow">&quot;Black Holes and Quantum Gravity&quot;</a><span class="printonly">. <a class="external free" href="http://www.damtp.cam.ac.uk/user/gr/public/bh_hawk.html" rel="nofollow">http://www.damtp.cam.ac.uk/user/gr/public/bh_hawk.html</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2009-03-26</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Black+Holes+and+Quantum+Gravity&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.damtp.cam.ac.uk%2Fuser%2Fgr%2Fpublic%2Fbh_hawk.html&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
962                                <li id="cite_note-53">
963                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-53">^</a></b> <span class="citation web"><a class="external text" href="http://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/ask_astro/answers/980420b.html" rel="nofollow">&quot;Ask an Astrophysicist&nbsp;: Quantum Gravity and Black Holes&quot;</a><span class="printonly">. <a class="external free" href="http://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/ask_astro/answers/980420b.html" rel="nofollow">http://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/ask_astro/answers/980420b.html</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2009-03-26</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Ask+an+Astrophysicist+%3A+Quantum+Gravity+and+Black+Holes&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fimagine.gsfc.nasa.gov%2Fdocs%2Fask_astro%2Fanswers%2F980420b.html&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
964                                <li id="cite_note-54">
965                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-54">^</a></b> <span class="citation Journal" id="CITEREFNemiroff1993">Nemiroff, Robert J. (1993). &quot;Visual distortions near a neutron star and black hole&quot;. <i>American Journal of Physics</i> <b>61</b>: 619. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a class="external text" href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1119%2F1.17224" rel="nofollow">10.1119/1.17224</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=Visual+distortions+near+a+neutron+star+and+black+hole&amp;rft.jtitle=American+Journal+of+Physics&amp;rft.aulast=Nemiroff&amp;rft.aufirst=Robert+J.&amp;rft.au=Nemiroff%2C%26%2332%3BRobert+J.&amp;rft.date=1993&amp;rft.volume=61&amp;rft.pages=619&amp;rft_id=info:doi/10.1119%2F1.17224&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
966                                <li id="cite_note-55">
967                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-55">^</a></b> <a href="#CITEREFCarroll2004">Carroll 2004</a>, Ch. 6.6</li>
968                                <li id="cite_note-56">
969                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-56">^</a></b> <a href="#CITEREFCarroll2004">Carroll 2004</a>, Ch. 6.7</li>
970                                <li id="cite_note-57">
971                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-57">^</a></b> <span class="citation Journal" id="CITEREFEinstein.2C_A.1939">Einstein, A. (1939). <a class="external text" href="http://jstor.org/stable/1968902" rel="nofollow">&quot;On A Stationary System With Spherical Symmetry Consisting of Many Gravitating Masses&quot;</a>. <i>Annals of Mathematics</i> (The Annals of Mathematics, Vol. 40, No. 4) <b>40</b> (4): 922&ndash;936. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a class="external text" href="http://dx.doi.org/10.2307%2F1968902" rel="nofollow">10.2307/1968902</a><span class="printonly">. <a class="external free" href="http://jstor.org/stable/1968902" rel="nofollow">http://jstor.org/stable/1968902</a></span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=On+A+Stationary+System+With+Spherical+Symmetry+Consisting+of+Many+Gravitating+Masses&amp;rft.jtitle=Annals+of+Mathematics&amp;rft.aulast=Einstein%2C+A.&amp;rft.au=Einstein%2C+A.&amp;rft.date=1939&amp;rft.volume=40&amp;rft.issue=4&amp;rft.pages=922%E2%80%93936&amp;rft.pub=The+Annals+of+Mathematics%2C+Vol.+40%2C+No.+4&amp;rft_id=info:doi/10.2307%2F1968902&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fjstor.org%2Fstable%2F1968902&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
972                                <li id="cite_note-58">
973                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-58">^</a></b> <span class="citation web"><a class="external text" href="http://www.arxiv.org/abs/0706.1109" rel="nofollow">&quot;Discovering the Kerr and Kerr-Schild metrics&quot;</a>. <i>To appear in &quot;The Kerr Spacetime&quot;, Eds D.L. Wiltshire, M. Visser and S.M. Scott, Cambridge Univ. Press</i>. Roy P. Kerr<span class="printonly">. <a class="external free" href="http://www.arxiv.org/abs/0706.1109" rel="nofollow">http://www.arxiv.org/abs/0706.1109</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved June 19, 2007</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Discovering+the+Kerr+and+Kerr-Schild+metrics&amp;rft.atitle=To+appear+in+%22The+Kerr+Spacetime%22%2C+Eds+D.L.+Wiltshire%2C+M.+Visser+and+S.M.+Scott%2C+Cambridge+Univ.+Press&amp;rft.pub=Roy+P.+Kerr&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.arxiv.org%2Fabs%2F0706.1109&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
974                                <li id="cite_note-HawkingPenrose1970-59">
975                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-HawkingPenrose1970_59-0">^</a></b> <span class="citation Journal" id="CITEREFHawkingPenrose1970"><a href="/wiki/Stephen_Hawking" title="Stephen Hawking">Hawking, Stephen</a>; Penrose, R. (January 1970). <a class="external text" href="http://rspa.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/314/1519/529.abstract" rel="nofollow">&quot;The Singularities of Gravitational Collapse and Cosmology&quot;</a>. <i><a href="/wiki/Proceedings_of_the_Royal_Society#Proceedings_of_the_Royal_Society_A" title="Proceedings of the Royal Society">Proceedings of the Royal Society A</a></i> <b>314</b> (1519): 529&ndash;548. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a class="external text" href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1098%2Frspa.1970.0021" rel="nofollow">10.1098/rspa.1970.0021</a><span class="printonly">. <a class="external free" href="http://rspa.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/314/1519/529.abstract" rel="nofollow">http://rspa.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/314/1519/529.abstract</a></span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=The+Singularities+of+Gravitational+Collapse+and+Cosmology&amp;rft.jtitle=%5B%5BProceedings+of+the+Royal+Society%23Proceedings+of+the+Royal+Society+A%7CProceedings+of+the+Royal+Society+A%5D%5D&amp;rft.aulast=Hawking&amp;rft.aufirst=Stephen&amp;rft.au=Hawking%2C%26%2332%3BStephen&amp;rft.au=Penrose%2C%26%2332%3BR.&amp;rft.date=January+1970&amp;rft.volume=314&amp;rft.issue=1519&amp;rft.pages=529%E2%80%93548&amp;rft_id=info:doi/10.1098%2Frspa.1970.0021&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Frspa.royalsocietypublishing.org%2Fcontent%2F314%2F1519%2F529.abstract&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
976                                <li id="cite_note-Carroll5.8-60">
977                                        ^ <a href="#cite_ref-Carroll5.8_60-0"><sup><i><b><font size="2">a</font></b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Carroll5.8_60-1"><sup><i><b><font size="2">b</font></b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Carroll5.8_60-2"><sup><i><b><font size="2">c</font></b></i></sup></a> <a href="#CITEREFCarroll2004">Carroll 2004</a>, Section 5.8</li>
978                                <li id="cite_note-ReesVolonteri-61">
979                                        ^ <a href="#cite_ref-ReesVolonteri_61-0"><sup><i><b><font size="2">a</font></b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-ReesVolonteri_61-1"><sup><i><b><font size="2">b</font></b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-ReesVolonteri_61-2"><sup><i><b><font size="2">c</font></b></i></sup></a> <span class="citation book">Rees, M.J.; Volonteri, M. (2007). &quot;Massive black holes: formation and evolution&quot;. in Karas, V.; Matt, G.. <i>Black Holes from Stars to Galaxies</i> &ndash; Across the Range of Masses<i>. Cambridge University Press. pp.&nbsp;51&ndash;58. <a href="/wiki/ArXiv" title="ArXiv">arXiv</a>:<a class="external text" href="http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0701512" rel="nofollow">astro-ph/0701512</a>.</i></span><i><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Massive+black+holes%3A+formation+and+evolution&amp;rft.atitle=Black+Holes+from+Stars+to+Galaxies%0A%E2%80%93+Across+the+Range+of+Masses&amp;rft.aulast=Rees&amp;rft.aufirst=M.J.&amp;rft.au=Rees%2C%26%2332%3BM.J.&amp;rft.au=Volonteri%2C%26%2332%3BM.&amp;rft.date=2007&amp;rft.pages=pp.%26nbsp%3B51%E2%80%9358&amp;rft.pub=Cambridge+University+Press&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span></i></li>
980                                <li id="cite_note-62">
981                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-62">^</a></b> <span class="citation Journal">Penrose, R. (2002). <i>General Relativity and Gravitation</i> <b>34</b>: 1141&ndash;1165. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a class="external text" href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1023%2FA%3A1016578408204" rel="nofollow">10.1023/A:1016578408204</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.jtitle=General+Relativity+and+Gravitation&amp;rft.aulast=Penrose&amp;rft.aufirst=R.&amp;rft.au=Penrose%2C%26%2332%3BR.&amp;rft.date=2002&amp;rft.volume=34&amp;rft.pages=1141%E2%80%931165&amp;rft_id=info:doi/10.1023%2FA%3A1016578408204&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span> <span class="plainlinks noprint" style="font-size: smaller"><a class="external text" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:Cite_doi/10.1023.2FA:1016578408204&amp;action=edit&amp;editintro=Template:Cite_doi/editintro2" rel="nofollow"><font size="2">edit</font></a></span></li>
982                                <li id="cite_note-63">
983                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-63">^</a></b> <span class="citation Journal">Carr, B. J. (2005). &quot;Primordial Black Holes: Do They Exist and Are They Useful?&quot;. <i><a href="/wiki/ArXiv" title="ArXiv">ar&Chi;iv</a>:<a class="external text" href="http://www.arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0511743v1" rel="nofollow">astro-ph/0511743v1</a></i> [astro-ph].</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Primordial+Black+Holes%3A+Do+They+Exist+and+Are+They+Useful%3F&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.aulast=Carr&amp;rft.aufirst=B.+J.&amp;rft.au=Carr%2C%26%2332%3BB.+J.&amp;rft.date=2005&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
984                                <li id="cite_note-64">
985                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-64">^</a></b> <span class="citation Journal" id="CITEREFGiddings.2C_Steven_B.Thomas2002">Giddings, Steven B.; Thomas, Scott (2002). &quot;High energy colliders as black hole factories: The end of short distance physics&quot;. <i>Physical Review D</i> <b>65</b>: 056010. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a class="external text" href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1103%2FPhysRevD.65.056010" rel="nofollow">10.1103/PhysRevD.65.056010</a>. <a href="/wiki/ArXiv" title="ArXiv">arXiv</a>:<a class="external text" href="http://arxiv.org/abs/hep-ph/0106219v4" rel="nofollow">hep-ph/0106219v4</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=High+energy+colliders+as+black+hole+factories%3A+The+end+of+short+distance+physics&amp;rft.jtitle=Physical+Review+D&amp;rft.aulast=Giddings%2C+Steven+B.&amp;rft.au=Giddings%2C+Steven+B.&amp;rft.au=Thomas%2C%26%2332%3BScott&amp;rft.date=2002&amp;rft.volume=65&amp;rft.pages=056010&amp;rft_id=info:doi/10.1103%2FPhysRevD.65.056010&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
986                                <li id="cite_note-65">
987                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-65">^</a></b> <span class="citation Journal">Harada, T. (2006). &quot;Is there a black hole minimum mass?&quot;. <i>Physical Review D</i> <b>74</b>: 084004. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a class="external text" href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1103%2FPhysRevD.74.084004" rel="nofollow">10.1103/PhysRevD.74.084004</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=Is+there+a+black+hole+minimum+mass%3F&amp;rft.jtitle=Physical+Review+D&amp;rft.aulast=Harada&amp;rft.aufirst=T.&amp;rft.au=Harada%2C%26%2332%3BT.&amp;rft.date=2006&amp;rft.volume=74&amp;rft.pages=084004&amp;rft_id=info:doi/10.1103%2FPhysRevD.74.084004&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span> <span class="plainlinks noprint" style="font-size: smaller"><a class="external text" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:Cite_doi/10.1103.2FPhysRevD.74.084004&amp;action=edit&amp;editintro=Template:Cite_doi/editintro2" rel="nofollow"><font size="2">edit</font></a></span></li>
988                                <li id="cite_note-66">
989                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-66">^</a></b> <span class="citation Journal" id="CITEREFArkani.E2.80.93Hamed.2C_N1998">Arkani&ndash;Hamed, N (1998). &quot;The hierarchy problem and new dimensions at a millimeter&quot;. <i>Physics Letters B</i> <b>429</b>: 263. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a class="external text" href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1016%2FS0370-2693%2898%2900466-3" rel="nofollow">10.1016/S0370-2693(98)00466-3</a>. <a href="/wiki/ArXiv" title="ArXiv">arXiv</a>:<a class="external text" href="http://arxiv.org/abs/9803315v1" rel="nofollow">9803315v1</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=The+hierarchy+problem+and+new+dimensions+at+a+millimeter&amp;rft.jtitle=Physics+Letters+B&amp;rft.aulast=Arkani%E2%80%93Hamed%2C+N&amp;rft.au=Arkani%E2%80%93Hamed%2C+N&amp;rft.date=1998&amp;rft.volume=429&amp;rft.pages=263&amp;rft_id=info:doi/10.1016%2FS0370-2693%2898%2900466-3&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
990                                <li id="cite_note-LHCsafety-67">
991                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-LHCsafety_67-0">^</a></b> <span class="citation web">LHC Safety Assessment Group. <a class="external text" href="http://lsag.web.cern.ch/lsag/LSAG-Report.pdf" rel="nofollow">&quot;Review of the Safety of LHC Collisions&quot;</a>. CERN<span class="printonly">. <a class="external free" href="http://lsag.web.cern.ch/lsag/LSAG-Report.pdf" rel="nofollow">http://lsag.web.cern.ch/lsag/LSAG-Report.pdf</a></span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Review+of+the+Safety+of+LHC+Collisions&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.aulast=LHC+Safety+Assessment+Group&amp;rft.au=LHC+Safety+Assessment+Group&amp;rft.pub=CERN&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Flsag.web.cern.ch%2Flsag%2FLSAG-Report.pdf&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
992                                <li id="cite_note-68">
993                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-68">^</a></b> <span class="citation Journal">Vesperini, E.; McMillan, S.L.W.; D&#39;Ercole, A.; D&#39;Antona, F. (2010). &quot;Intermediate-Mass Black Holes in Early Globular Clusters&quot;. <i><a href="/wiki/ArXiv" title="ArXiv">ar&Chi;iv</a>:<a class="external text" href="http://www.arxiv.org/abs/1003.3470" rel="nofollow">1003.3470</a></i> [astro-ph.GA].</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Intermediate-Mass+Black+Holes+in+Early+Globular+Clusters&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.aulast=Vesperini&amp;rft.aufirst=E.&amp;rft.au=Vesperini%2C%26%2332%3BE.&amp;rft.au=McMillan%2C%26%2332%3BS.L.W.&amp;rft.au=D%27Ercole%2C%26%2332%3BA.&amp;rft.au=D%27Antona%2C%26%2332%3BF.&amp;rft.date=2010&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
994                                <li id="cite_note-69">
995                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-69">^</a></b> <span class="citation Journal">Zwart, S.; Baumgardt, H.; Hut, P.; Makino, J.; McMillan, S. (2004). &quot;Formation of massive black holes through runaway collisions in dense young star clusters&quot;. <i>Nature</i> <b>428</b> (6984): 724&ndash;726. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a class="external text" href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1038%2Fnature02448" rel="nofollow">10.1038/nature02448</a>. <a class="mw-redirect" href="/wiki/PubMed_Identifier" title="PubMed Identifier">PMID</a>&nbsp;<a class="external text" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15085124" rel="nofollow">15085124</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=Formation+of+massive+black+holes+through+runaway+collisions+in+dense+young+star+clusters&amp;rft.jtitle=Nature&amp;rft.aulast=Zwart&amp;rft.aufirst=S.&amp;rft.au=Zwart%2C%26%2332%3BS.&amp;rft.au=Baumgardt%2C%26%2332%3BH.&amp;rft.au=Hut%2C%26%2332%3BP.&amp;rft.au=Makino%2C%26%2332%3BJ.&amp;rft.au=McMillan%2C%26%2332%3BS.&amp;rft.date=2004&amp;rft.volume=428&amp;rft.issue=6984&amp;rft.pages=724%E2%80%93726&amp;rft_id=info:doi/10.1038%2Fnature02448&amp;rft_id=info:pmid/15085124&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span> <span class="plainlinks noprint" style="font-size: smaller"><a class="external text" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:Cite_doi/10.1038.2Fnature02448&amp;action=edit&amp;editintro=Template:Cite_doi/editintro2" rel="nofollow"><font size="2">edit</font></a></span></li>
996                                <li id="cite_note-70">
997                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-70">^</a></b> <span class="citation Journal">O&rsquo;leary, R. M.; Rasio, F. A.; Fregeau, J. M.; Ivanova, N.; O&rsquo;shaughnessy, R. (2006). &quot;Binary Mergers and Growth of Black Holes in Dense Star Clusters&quot;. <i>The Astrophysical Journal</i> <b>637</b>: 937. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a class="external text" href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1086%2F498446" rel="nofollow">10.1086/498446</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=Binary+Mergers+and+Growth+of+Black+Holes+in+Dense+Star+Clusters&amp;rft.jtitle=The+Astrophysical+Journal&amp;rft.aulast=O%E2%80%99leary&amp;rft.aufirst=R.+M.&amp;rft.au=O%E2%80%99leary%2C%26%2332%3BR.+M.&amp;rft.au=Rasio%2C%26%2332%3BF.+A.&amp;rft.au=Fregeau%2C%26%2332%3BJ.+M.&amp;rft.au=Ivanova%2C%26%2332%3BN.&amp;rft.au=O%E2%80%99shaughnessy%2C%26%2332%3BR.&amp;rft.date=2006&amp;rft.volume=637&amp;rft.pages=937&amp;rft_id=info:doi/10.1086%2F498446&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span> <span class="plainlinks noprint" style="font-size: smaller"><a class="external text" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:Cite_doi/10.1086.2F498446&amp;action=edit&amp;editintro=Template:Cite_doi/editintro2" rel="nofollow"><font size="2">edit</font></a></span></li>
998                                <li id="cite_note-71">
999                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-71">^</a></b> <span class="citation Journal" id="CITEREFPage.2C_Don_N2005">Page, Don N (2005). &quot;Hawking radiation and black hole thermodynamics&quot;. <i>New Journal of Physics</i> <b>7</b>: 203. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a class="external text" href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1088%2F1367-2630%2F7%2F1%2F203" rel="nofollow">10.1088/1367-2630/7/1/203</a>. <a href="/wiki/ArXiv" title="ArXiv">arXiv</a>:<a class="external text" href="http://arxiv.org/abs/hep-th/0409024v3" rel="nofollow">hep-th/0409024v3</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=Hawking+radiation+and+black+hole+thermodynamics&amp;rft.jtitle=New+Journal+of+Physics&amp;rft.aulast=Page%2C+Don+N&amp;rft.au=Page%2C+Don+N&amp;rft.date=2005&amp;rft.volume=7&amp;rft.pages=203&amp;rft_id=info:doi/10.1088%2F1367-2630%2F7%2F1%2F203&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
1000                                <li id="cite_note-72">
1001                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-72">^</a></b> <span class="citation web"><a class="external text" href="http://www.einstein-online.info/elementary/quantum/evaporating_bh/?set_language=en" rel="nofollow">&quot;Einstein online&quot;</a>. Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics. 2010<span class="printonly">. <a class="external free" href="http://www.einstein-online.info/elementary/quantum/evaporating_bh/?set_language=en" rel="nofollow">http://www.einstein-online.info/elementary/quantum/evaporating_bh/?set_language=en</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved {{subst:today}}</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Einstein+online&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.date=2010&amp;rft.pub=Max+Planck+Institute+for+Gravitational+Physics&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.einstein-online.info%2Felementary%2Fquantum%2Fevaporating_bh%2F%3Fset_language%3Den&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
1002                                <li id="cite_note-73">
1003                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-73">^</a></b> <span class="citation Journal">Giddings, S. B.; Mangano, M. L. (2008). &quot;Astrophysical implications of hypothetical stable TeV-scale black holes&quot;. <i>Physical Review D</i> <b>78</b>: 035009. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a class="external text" href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1103%2FPhysRevD.78.035009" rel="nofollow">10.1103/PhysRevD.78.035009</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=Astrophysical+implications+of+hypothetical+stable+TeV-scale+black+holes&amp;rft.jtitle=Physical+Review+D&amp;rft.aulast=Giddings&amp;rft.aufirst=S.+B.&amp;rft.au=Giddings%2C%26%2332%3BS.+B.&amp;rft.au=Mangano%2C%26%2332%3BM.+L.&amp;rft.date=2008&amp;rft.volume=78&amp;rft.pages=035009&amp;rft_id=info:doi/10.1103%2FPhysRevD.78.035009&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span> <span class="plainlinks noprint" style="font-size: smaller"><a class="external text" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:Cite_doi/10.1103.2FPhysRevD.78.035009&amp;action=edit&amp;editintro=Template:Cite_doi/editintro2" rel="nofollow"><font size="2">edit</font></a></span></li>
1004                                <li id="cite_note-74">
1005                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-74">^</a></b> <span class="citation Journal">Peskin, M. (2008). &quot;The end of the world at the Large Hadron Collider?&quot;. <i>Physics</i> <b>1</b>: 14&ndash;20. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a class="external text" href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1103%2FPhysics.1.14" rel="nofollow">10.1103/Physics.1.14</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=The+end+of+the+world+at+the+Large+Hadron+Collider%3F&amp;rft.jtitle=Physics&amp;rft.aulast=Peskin&amp;rft.aufirst=M.&amp;rft.au=Peskin%2C%26%2332%3BM.&amp;rft.date=2008&amp;rft.volume=1&amp;rft.pages=14%E2%80%9320&amp;rft_id=info:doi/10.1103%2FPhysics.1.14&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span> <span class="plainlinks noprint" style="font-size: smaller"><a class="external text" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:Cite_doi/10.1103.2FPhysics.1.14&amp;action=edit&amp;editintro=Template:Cite_doi/editintro2" rel="nofollow"><font size="2">edit</font></a></span></li>
1006                                <li id="cite_note-75">
1007                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-75">^</a></b> <span class="citation Journal" id="CITEREFFichtelBertschDingusEsposito1994">Fichtel, C.E.; Bertsch, D.L.; Dingus, B.L.; Esposito, J.A.; Hartman, R.C.; Hunter, S.D.; Kanbach, G.;; Kniffen, D.A. <i>et al</i>. (1994). &quot;Search of the energetic gamma-ray experiment telescope (EGRET) data for high-energy gamma-ray microsecond bursts&quot;. <i>Astrophysical Journal, Part 1</i> <b>434</b> (2): 557&ndash;559. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a class="external text" href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1086%2F174758" rel="nofollow">10.1086/174758</a>. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Serial_Number" title="International Standard Serial Number">ISSN</a>&nbsp;<a class="external text" href="http://www.worldcat.org/issn/0004-637X" rel="nofollow">0004-637X</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=Search+of+the+energetic+gamma-ray+experiment+telescope+%28EGRET%29+data+for+high-energy+gamma-ray+microsecond+bursts&amp;rft.jtitle=Astrophysical+Journal%2C+Part+1&amp;rft.aulast=Fichtel&amp;rft.aufirst=C.E.&amp;rft.au=Fichtel%2C%26%2332%3BC.E.&amp;rft.au=Bertsch%2C%26%2332%3BD.L.&amp;rft.au=Dingus%2C%26%2332%3BB.L.&amp;rft.au=Esposito%2C%26%2332%3BJ.A.&amp;rft.au=Hartman%2C%26%2332%3BR.C.&amp;rft.au=Hunter%2C%26%2332%3BS.D.&amp;rft.au=Kanbach%2C%26%2332%3BG.%3B&amp;rft.au=Kniffen%2C%26%2332%3BD.A.&amp;rft.au=Lin%2C%26%2332%3BY.C.&amp;rft.date=1994&amp;rft.volume=434&amp;rft.issue=2&amp;rft.pages=557%E2%80%93559&amp;rft_id=info:doi/10.1086%2F174758&amp;rft.issn=0004-637X&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
1008                                <li id="cite_note-76">
1009                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-76">^</a></b> <span class="citation book">Naeye, Robert. <a class="external text" href="http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/GLAST/science/testing_fundamental_physics.html" rel="nofollow"><i>Testing Fundamental Physics</i></a>. NASA.gov<span class="printonly">. <a class="external free" href="http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/GLAST/science/testing_fundamental_physics.html" rel="nofollow">http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/GLAST/science/testing_fundamental_physics.html</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2008-09-16</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Testing+Fundamental+Physics&amp;rft.aulast=Naeye&amp;rft.aufirst=Robert&amp;rft.au=Naeye%2C%26%2332%3BRobert&amp;rft.pub=NASA.gov&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.nasa.gov%2Fmission_pages%2FGLAST%2Fscience%2Ftesting_fundamental_physics.html&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
1010                                <li id="cite_note-McClintockRemillard2006-77">
1011                                        ^ <a href="#cite_ref-McClintockRemillard2006_77-0"><sup><i><b><font size="2">a</font></b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-McClintockRemillard2006_77-1"><sup><i><b><font size="2">b</font></b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-McClintockRemillard2006_77-2"><sup><i><b><font size="2">c</font></b></i></sup></a> <span class="citation book">McClintock, Jeffrey E.; Remillard, Ronald A. (2006). <a class="external text" href="http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0306213" rel="nofollow">&quot;Black Hole Binaries&quot;</a>. in Lewin, Walter; van der Klis, Michiel. <i>Compact Stellar X-ray Sources</i>. Cambridge University Press. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&nbsp;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0521826594" title="Special:BookSources/0521826594">0521826594</a><span class="printonly">. <a class="external free" href="http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0306213" rel="nofollow">http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0306213</a></span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Black+Hole+Binaries&amp;rft.atitle=Compact+Stellar+X-ray+Sources&amp;rft.aulast=McClintock&amp;rft.aufirst=Jeffrey+E.&amp;rft.au=McClintock%2C%26%2332%3BJeffrey+E.&amp;rft.au=Remillard%2C%26%2332%3BRonald+A.&amp;rft.date=2006&amp;rft.pub=Cambridge+University+Press&amp;rft.isbn=0521826594&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Farxiv.org%2Fabs%2Fastro-ph%2F0306213&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span> section 4.1.5 .</li>
1012                                <li id="cite_note-CMS1999-78">
1013                                        ^ <a href="#cite_ref-CMS1999_78-0"><sup><i><b><font size="2">a</font></b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-CMS1999_78-1"><sup><i><b><font size="2">b</font></b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-CMS1999_78-2"><sup><i><b><font size="2">c</font></b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-CMS1999_78-3"><sup><i><b><font size="2">d</font></b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-CMS1999_78-4"><sup><i><b><font size="2">e</font></b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-CMS1999_78-5"><sup><i><b><font size="2">f</font></b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-CMS1999_78-6"><sup><i><b><font size="2">g</font></b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-CMS1999_78-7"><sup><i><b><font size="2">h</font></b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-CMS1999_78-8"><sup><i><b><font size="2">i</font></b></i></sup></a> <span class="citation Journal" id="CITEREFCelottiMillerSciama1999">Celotti, A.; Miller, J.C.; Sciama, D.W. (1999). <a class="external text" href="http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/9912186" rel="nofollow">&quot;Astrophysical evidence for the existence of black holes&quot;</a>. <i>Class. Quant. Grav.</i> <b>16</b><span class="printonly">. <a class="external free" href="http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/9912186" rel="nofollow">http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/9912186</a></span></span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=Astrophysical+evidence+for+the+existence+of+black+holes&amp;rft.jtitle=Class.+Quant.+Grav.&amp;rft.aulast=Celotti&amp;rft.aufirst=A.&amp;rft.au=Celotti%2C%26%2332%3BA.&amp;rft.au=Miller%2C%26%2332%3BJ.C.&amp;rft.au=Sciama%2C%26%2332%3BD.W.&amp;rft.date=1999&amp;rft.volume=16&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Farxiv.org%2Fabs%2Fastro-ph%2F9912186&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
1014                                <li id="cite_note-79">
1015                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-79">^</a></b> <span class="citation Journal" id="CITEREFWinter.2C_Lisa_M.MushotzkyReynolds2006">Winter, Lisa M.; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Reynolds, Christopher S. (2006). &quot;<i>XMM‐Newton</i> Archival Study of the Ultraluminous X‐Ray Population in Nearby Galaxies&quot;. <i>The Astrophysical Journal</i> <b>649</b>: 730. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a class="external text" href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1086%2F506579" rel="nofollow">10.1086/506579</a>. <a href="/wiki/ArXiv" title="ArXiv">arXiv</a>:<a class="external text" href="http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0512480v2" rel="nofollow">astro-ph/0512480v2</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=%27%27XMM%E2%80%90Newton%27%27+Archival+Study+of+the+Ultraluminous+X%E2%80%90Ray+Population+in+Nearby+Galaxies&amp;rft.jtitle=The+Astrophysical+Journal&amp;rft.aulast=Winter%2C+Lisa+M.&amp;rft.au=Winter%2C+Lisa+M.&amp;rft.au=Mushotzky%2C%26%2332%3BRichard+F.&amp;rft.au=Reynolds%2C%26%2332%3BChristopher+S.&amp;rft.date=2006&amp;rft.volume=649&amp;rft.pages=730&amp;rft_id=info:doi/10.1086%2F506579&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
1016                                <li id="cite_note-80">
1017                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-80">^</a></b> <span class="citation Journal" id="CITEREFBolton1972">Bolton, C. T. (1972). &quot;Identification of Cygnus X-1 with HDE 226868&quot;. <i>Nature</i> <b>235</b>: 271&ndash;273. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a class="external text" href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1038%2F235271b0" rel="nofollow">10.1038/235271b0</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=Identification+of+Cygnus+X-1+with+HDE+226868&amp;rft.jtitle=Nature&amp;rft.aulast=Bolton&amp;rft.aufirst=C.+T.&amp;rft.au=Bolton%2C%26%2332%3BC.+T.&amp;rft.date=1972&amp;rft.volume=235&amp;rft.pages=271%E2%80%93273&amp;rft_id=info:doi/10.1038%2F235271b0&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
1018                                <li id="cite_note-81">
1019                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-81">^</a></b> <span class="citation Journal" id="CITEREFWebsterMurdin1972">Webster, B.L; Murdin, P. (1972). &quot;Cygnus X-1&mdash;a Spectroscopic Binary with a Heavy Companion&nbsp;?&quot;. <i>Nature</i> <b>235</b>: 37&ndash;38. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a class="external text" href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1038%2F235037a0" rel="nofollow">10.1038/235037a0</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=Cygnus+X-1%E2%80%94a+Spectroscopic+Binary+with+a+Heavy+Companion+%3F&amp;rft.jtitle=Nature&amp;rft.aulast=Webster&amp;rft.aufirst=B.L&amp;rft.au=Webster%2C%26%2332%3BB.L&amp;rft.au=Murdin%2C%26%2332%3BP.&amp;rft.date=1972&amp;rft.volume=235&amp;rft.pages=37%E2%80%9338&amp;rft_id=info:doi/10.1038%2F235037a0&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
1020                                <li id="cite_note-82">
1021                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-82">^</a></b> <span class="citation book">Rolston, Bruce (10 November 1997). <a class="external text" href="http://news.utoronto.ca/bin/bulletin/nov10_97/art4.htm" rel="nofollow"><i>The First Black Hole</i></a>. University of Toronto<span class="printonly">. <a class="external free" href="http://news.utoronto.ca/bin/bulletin/nov10_97/art4.htm" rel="nofollow">http://news.utoronto.ca/bin/bulletin/nov10_97/art4.htm</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2008-03-11</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=The+First+Black+Hole&amp;rft.aulast=Rolston&amp;rft.aufirst=Bruce&amp;rft.au=Rolston%2C%26%2332%3BBruce&amp;rft.date=10+November+1997&amp;rft.pub=University+of+Toronto&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fnews.utoronto.ca%2Fbin%2Fbulletin%2Fnov10_97%2Fart4.htm&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
1022                                <li id="cite_note-83">
1023                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-83">^</a></b> <span class="citation Journal" id="CITEREFShipman1975">Shipman, H. L. (1 January 1975). <a class="external text" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1975ApL....16....9S" rel="nofollow">&quot;The implausible history of triple star models for Cygnus X-1 Evidence for a black hole&quot;</a>. <i>Astrophysical Letters</i> <b>16</b> (1): 9&ndash;12. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a class="external text" href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1016%2FS0304-8853%2899%2900384-4" rel="nofollow">10.1016/S0304-8853(99)00384-4</a><span class="printonly">. <a class="external free" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1975ApL....16....9S" rel="nofollow">http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1975ApL....16....9S</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2008-03-11</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=The+implausible+history+of+triple+star+models+for+Cygnus+X-1+Evidence+for+a+black+hole&amp;rft.jtitle=Astrophysical+Letters&amp;rft.aulast=Shipman&amp;rft.aufirst=H.+L.&amp;rft.au=Shipman%2C%26%2332%3BH.+L.&amp;rft.date=1+January+1975&amp;rft.volume=16&amp;rft.issue=1&amp;rft.pages=9%E2%80%9312&amp;rft_id=info:doi/10.1016%2FS0304-8853%2899%2900384-4&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fadsabs.harvard.edu%2Fabs%2F1975ApL....16....9S&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
1024                                <li id="cite_note-84">
1025                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-84">^</a></b> <span class="citation Journal">Narayan, R.; McClintock, J. (2008). &quot;Advection-dominated accretion and the black hole event horizon&quot;. <i>New Astronomy Reviews</i> <b>51</b>: 733. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a class="external text" href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.newar.2008.03.002" rel="nofollow">10.1016/j.newar.2008.03.002</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=Advection-dominated+accretion+and+the+black+hole+event+horizon&amp;rft.jtitle=New+Astronomy+Reviews&amp;rft.aulast=Narayan&amp;rft.aufirst=R.&amp;rft.au=Narayan%2C%26%2332%3BR.&amp;rft.au=McClintock%2C%26%2332%3BJ.&amp;rft.date=2008&amp;rft.volume=51&amp;rft.pages=733&amp;rft_id=info:doi/10.1016%2Fj.newar.2008.03.002&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span> <span class="plainlinks noprint" style="font-size: smaller"><a class="external text" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:Cite_doi/10.1016.2Fj.newar.2008.03.002&amp;action=edit&amp;editintro=Template:Cite_doi/editintro2" rel="nofollow"><font size="2">edit</font></a></span></li>
1026                                <li id="cite_note-85">
1027                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-85">^</a></b> <span class="citation press release"><a href="/wiki/Goddard_Space_Flight_Center" title="Goddard Space Flight Center">Goddard Space Flight Center</a> (2008-04-01). <a class="external text" href="http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2008-04/nsfc-nsi040108.php" rel="nofollow">&quot;NASA scientists identify smallest known black hole&quot;</a>. Press release<span class="printonly">. <a class="external free" href="http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2008-04/nsfc-nsi040108.php" rel="nofollow">http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2008-04/nsfc-nsi040108.php</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2009-03-14</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=NASA+scientists+identify+smallest+known+black+hole&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.aulast=%5B%5BGoddard+Space+Flight+Center%5D%5D&amp;rft.au=%5B%5BGoddard+Space+Flight+Center%5D%5D&amp;rft.date=2008-04-01&amp;rft.series=Press+release&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.eurekalert.org%2Fpub_releases%2F2008-04%2Fnsfc-nsi040108.php&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
1028                                <li id="cite_note-86">
1029                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-86">^</a></b> <span class="citation Journal" id="CITEREFBloom.2C_J._S.KulkarniDjorgovski2002">Bloom, J. S.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Djorgovski, S. G. (2002). &quot;The Observed Offset Distribution of Gamma-Ray Bursts from Their Host Galaxies: A Robust Clue to the Nature of the Progenitors&quot;. <i>The Astronomical Journal</i> <b>123</b>: 1111. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a class="external text" href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1086%2F338893" rel="nofollow">10.1086/338893</a>. <a href="/wiki/ArXiv" title="ArXiv">arXiv</a>:<a class="external text" href="http://arxiv.org/abs/0010176" rel="nofollow">0010176</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=The+Observed+Offset+Distribution+of+Gamma-Ray+Bursts+from+Their+Host+Galaxies%3A+A+Robust+Clue+to+the+Nature+of+the+Progenitors&amp;rft.jtitle=The+Astronomical+Journal&amp;rft.aulast=Bloom%2C+J.+S.&amp;rft.au=Bloom%2C+J.+S.&amp;rft.au=Kulkarni%2C%26%2332%3BS.+R.&amp;rft.au=Djorgovski%2C%26%2332%3BS.+G.&amp;rft.date=2002&amp;rft.volume=123&amp;rft.pages=1111&amp;rft_id=info:doi/10.1086%2F338893&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
1030                                <li id="cite_note-Harvard.edu-NeutronStars-87">
1031                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-Harvard.edu-NeutronStars_87-0">^</a></b> <span class="citation Journal" id="CITEREFBlinnikov.2C_S1984">Blinnikov, S (1984). &quot;Exploding Neutron Stars in Close Binaries&quot;. <i>Soviet Astronomy Letters</i> <b>10</b>: 177. <a href="/wiki/Bibcode" title="Bibcode">Bibcode</a>:&nbsp;<a class="external text" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984SvAL...10..177B" rel="nofollow">1984SvAL...10..177B</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=Exploding+Neutron+Stars+in+Close+Binaries&amp;rft.jtitle=Soviet+Astronomy+Letters&amp;rft.aulast=Blinnikov%2C+S&amp;rft.au=Blinnikov%2C+S&amp;rft.date=1984&amp;rft.volume=10&amp;rft.pages=177&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
1032                                <li id="cite_note-88">
1033                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-88">^</a></b> <span class="citation Journal" id="CITEREFLattimer.2C_J._M.Schramm1976">Lattimer, J. M.; Schramm, D. N. (1976). &quot;The tidal disruption of neutron stars by black holes in close binaries&quot;. <i>The Astrophysical Journal</i> <b>210</b>: 549. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a class="external text" href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1086%2F154860" rel="nofollow">10.1086/154860</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=The+tidal+disruption+of+neutron+stars+by+black+holes+in+close+binaries&amp;rft.jtitle=The+Astrophysical+Journal&amp;rft.aulast=Lattimer%2C+J.+M.&amp;rft.au=Lattimer%2C+J.+M.&amp;rft.au=Schramm%2C%26%2332%3BD.+N.&amp;rft.date=1976&amp;rft.volume=210&amp;rft.pages=549&amp;rft_id=info:doi/10.1086%2F154860&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
1034                                <li id="cite_note-89">
1035                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-89">^</a></b> <span class="citation Journal" id="CITEREFPaczynski1995"><a href="/wiki/Bohdan_Paczy%C5%84ski" title="Bohdan Paczyński">Paczynski, Bohdan</a> (1995). &quot;How Far Away Are Gamma-Ray Bursters?&quot;. <i><a href="/wiki/Publications_of_the_Astronomical_Society_of_the_Pacific" title="Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific">Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific</a></i> <b>107</b>: 1167. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a class="external text" href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1086%2F133674" rel="nofollow">10.1086/133674</a>. <a href="/wiki/ArXiv" title="ArXiv">arXiv</a>:<a class="external text" href="http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/9505096" rel="nofollow">astro-ph/9505096</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=How+Far+Away+Are+Gamma-Ray+Bursters%3F&amp;rft.jtitle=%5B%5BPublications+of+the+Astronomical+Society+of+the+Pacific%5D%5D&amp;rft.aulast=Paczynski&amp;rft.aufirst=Bohdan&amp;rft.au=Paczynski%2C%26%2332%3BBohdan&amp;rft.date=1995&amp;rft.volume=107&amp;rft.pages=1167&amp;rft_id=info:doi/10.1086%2F133674&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
1036                                <li id="cite_note-King-90">
1037                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-King_90-0">^</a></b> <span class="citation Journal" id="CITEREFKing2003">King, Andrew (2003-09-15). <a class="external text" href="http://www.iop.org/EJ/article/1538-4357/596/1/L27/17559.text.html" rel="nofollow">&quot;Black Holes, Galaxy Formation, and the MBH-&sigma; Relation&quot;</a>. <i>The Astrophysical Journal</i> (The American Astronomical Society.): 596:L27&ndash;L29<span class="printonly">. <a class="external free" href="http://www.iop.org/EJ/article/1538-4357/596/1/L27/17559.text.html" rel="nofollow">http://www.iop.org/EJ/article/1538-4357/596/1/L27/17559.text.html</a></span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=Black+Holes%2C+Galaxy+Formation%2C+and+the+MBH-%CF%83+Relation&amp;rft.jtitle=The+Astrophysical+Journal&amp;rft.aulast=King&amp;rft.aufirst=Andrew&amp;rft.au=King%2C%26%2332%3BAndrew&amp;rft.date=2003-09-15&amp;rft.pages=596%3AL27%E2%80%93L29&amp;rft.pub=The+American+Astronomical+Society.&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.iop.org%2FEJ%2Farticle%2F1538-4357%2F596%2F1%2FL27%2F17559.text.html&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
1038                                <li id="cite_note-msigma2000-91">
1039                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-msigma2000_91-0">^</a></b> <span class="citation Journal" id="CITEREFFerrareseMerritt2000">Ferrarese, Laura; <a href="/wiki/David_Merritt" title="David Merritt">Merritt, David</a> (August 2000). <a class="external text" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000ApJ...539L...9F" rel="nofollow">&quot;A Fundamental Relation Between Supermassive Black Holes and their Host Galaxies&quot;</a>. <i>The Astrophysical Journal</i> (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press) <b>539</b> (1): L9&ndash;L12. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a class="external text" href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1086%2F312838" rel="nofollow">10.1086/312838</a><span class="printonly">. <a class="external free" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000ApJ...539L...9F" rel="nofollow">http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000ApJ...539L...9F</a></span></span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=A+Fundamental+Relation+Between+Supermassive+Black+Holes+and+their+Host+Galaxies&amp;rft.jtitle=The+Astrophysical+Journal&amp;rft.aulast=Ferrarese&amp;rft.aufirst=Laura&amp;rft.au=Ferrarese%2C%26%2332%3BLaura&amp;rft.au=Merritt%2C%26%2332%3BDavid&amp;rft.date=August+2000&amp;rft.volume=539&amp;rft.issue=1&amp;rft.pages=L9%E2%80%93L12&amp;rft.place=Chicago&amp;rft.pub=The+University+of+Chicago+Press&amp;rft_id=info:doi/10.1086%2F312838&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fadsabs.harvard.edu%2Fabs%2F2000ApJ...539L...9F&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
1040                                <li id="cite_note-krolik1999-92">
1041                                        ^ <a href="#cite_ref-krolik1999_92-0"><sup><i><b><font size="2">a</font></b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-krolik1999_92-1"><sup><i><b><font size="2">b</font></b></i></sup></a> <span class="citation book">J. H. Krolik (1999). <i>Active Galactic Nuclei</i>. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&nbsp;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-691-01151-6" title="Special:BookSources/0-691-01151-6">0-691-01151-6</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Active+Galactic+Nuclei&amp;rft.aulast=J.+H.+Krolik&amp;rft.au=J.+H.+Krolik&amp;rft.date=1999&amp;rft.place=Princeton%2C+New+Jersey&amp;rft.pub=Princeton+University+Press&amp;rft.isbn=0-691-01151-6&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span><sup class="noprint Inline-Template" style="white-space: nowrap" title="This citation requires a reference to the specific page or range of pages in which the material appears"><font size="2">[<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Citing_sources" title="Wikipedia:Citing sources">page&nbsp;needed</a></i>]</font></sup></li>
1042                                <li id="cite_note-sparkegallagher2000-93">
1043                                        ^ <a href="#cite_ref-sparkegallagher2000_93-0"><sup><i><b><font size="2">a</font></b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-sparkegallagher2000_93-1"><sup><i><b><font size="2">b</font></b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-sparkegallagher2000_93-2"><sup><i><b><font size="2">c</font></b></i></sup></a> <span class="citation book">L. S. Sparke, J. S. Gallagher III (2000). <i>Galaxies in the Universe: An Introduction</i>. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&nbsp;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-521-59704-4" title="Special:BookSources/0-521-59704-4">0-521-59704-4</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Galaxies+in+the+Universe%3A+An+Introduction&amp;rft.aulast=L.+S.+Sparke%2C+J.+S.+Gallagher+III&amp;rft.au=L.+S.+Sparke%2C+J.+S.+Gallagher+III&amp;rft.date=2000&amp;rft.place=Cambridge&amp;rft.pub=Cambridge+University+Press&amp;rft.isbn=0-521-59704-4&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span><sup class="noprint Inline-Template" style="white-space: nowrap" title="This citation requires a reference to the specific page or range of pages in which the material appears"><font size="2">[<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Citing_sources" title="Wikipedia:Citing sources">page&nbsp;needed</a></i>]</font></sup></li>
1044                                <li id="cite_note-kormendyrichstone1995-94">
1045                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-kormendyrichstone1995_94-0">^</a></b> <span class="citation Journal" id="CITEREFJ._Kormendy.2C_D._Richstone1995">J. Kormendy, D. Richstone (1995). &quot;Inward Bound---The Search For Supermassive Black Holes In Galactic Nuclei&quot;. <i>Annual Reviews of Astronomy and Astrophysics</i> <b>33</b>: 581&ndash;624. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a class="external text" href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1146%2Fannurev.aa.33.090195.003053" rel="nofollow">10.1146/annurev.aa.33.090195.003053</a>. <a href="/wiki/Bibcode" title="Bibcode">Bibcode</a>:&nbsp;<a class="external text" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995ARA&amp;A..33..581K" rel="nofollow">1995ARA&amp;A..33..581K</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=Inward+Bound---The+Search+For+Supermassive+Black+Holes+In+Galactic+Nuclei&amp;rft.jtitle=Annual+Reviews+of+Astronomy+and+Astrophysics&amp;rft.aulast=J.+Kormendy%2C+D.+Richstone&amp;rft.au=J.+Kormendy%2C+D.+Richstone&amp;rft.date=1995&amp;rft.volume=33&amp;rft.pages=581%E2%80%93624&amp;rft_id=info:doi/10.1146%2Fannurev.aa.33.090195.003053&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
1046                                <li id="cite_note-Gillessen-95">
1047                                        ^ <a href="#cite_ref-Gillessen_95-0"><sup><i><b><font size="2">a</font></b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Gillessen_95-1"><sup><i><b><font size="2">b</font></b></i></sup></a> <span class="citation Journal">Gillessen, S.; Eisenhauer, F.; Trippe, S.; Alexander, T.; Genzel, R.; Martins, F.; Ott, T. (2009). &quot;Monitoring Stellar Orbits Around the Massive Black Hole in the Galactic Center&quot;. <i><a class="mw-redirect" href="/wiki/Astrophysical_Journal" title="Astrophysical Journal">Astrophysical Journal</a></i> <b>692</b>: 1075&ndash;1109. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a class="external text" href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1088%2F0004-637X%2F692%2F2%2F1075" rel="nofollow">10.1088/0004-637X/692/2/1075</a>. <a href="/wiki/ArXiv" title="ArXiv">arXiv</a>:<a class="external text" href="http://arxiv.org/abs/0810.4674" rel="nofollow">0810.4674</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=Monitoring+Stellar+Orbits+Around+the+Massive+Black+Hole+in+the+Galactic+Center&amp;rft.jtitle=%5B%5BAstrophysical+Journal%5D%5D&amp;rft.aulast=Gillessen&amp;rft.aufirst=S.&amp;rft.au=Gillessen%2C%26%2332%3BS.&amp;rft.au=Eisenhauer%2C%26%2332%3BF.&amp;rft.au=Trippe%2C%26%2332%3BS.&amp;rft.au=Alexander%2C%26%2332%3BT.&amp;rft.au=Genzel%2C%26%2332%3BR.&amp;rft.au=Martins%2C%26%2332%3BF.&amp;rft.au=Ott%2C%26%2332%3BT.&amp;rft.date=2009&amp;rft.volume=692&amp;rft.pages=1075%E2%80%931109&amp;rft_id=info:doi/10.1088%2F0004-637X%2F692%2F2%2F1075&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span> <span class="plainlinks noprint" style="font-size: smaller"><a class="external text" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:Cite_doi/10.1088.2F0004-637X.2F692.2F2.2F1075&amp;action=edit&amp;editintro=Template:Cite_doi/editintro2" rel="nofollow"><font size="2">edit</font></a></span></li>
1048                                <li id="cite_note-Ghez1998-96">
1049                                        ^ <a href="#cite_ref-Ghez1998_96-0"><sup><i><b><font size="2">a</font></b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Ghez1998_96-1"><sup><i><b><font size="2">b</font></b></i></sup></a> <span class="citation Journal">Ghez, A. M.; Klein, B. L.; Morris, M.; Becklin, E. E. (1998). &quot;High Proper‐Motion Stars in the Vicinity of Sagittarius A*: Evidence for a Supermassive Black Hole at the Center of Our Galaxy&quot;. <i>The Astrophysical Journal</i> <b>509</b>: 678. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a class="external text" href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1086%2F306528" rel="nofollow">10.1086/306528</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=High+Proper%E2%80%90Motion+Stars+in+the+Vicinity+of+Sagittarius+A%2A%3A+Evidence+for+a+Supermassive+Black+Hole+at+the+Center+of+Our+Galaxy&amp;rft.jtitle=The+Astrophysical+Journal&amp;rft.aulast=Ghez&amp;rft.aufirst=A.+M.&amp;rft.au=Ghez%2C%26%2332%3BA.+M.&amp;rft.au=Klein%2C%26%2332%3BB.+L.&amp;rft.au=Morris%2C%26%2332%3BM.&amp;rft.au=Becklin%2C%26%2332%3BE.+E.&amp;rft.date=1998&amp;rft.volume=509&amp;rft.pages=678&amp;rft_id=info:doi/10.1086%2F306528&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span> <span class="plainlinks noprint" style="font-size: smaller"><a class="external text" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:Cite_doi/10.1086.2F306528&amp;action=edit&amp;editintro=Template:Cite_doi/editintro2" rel="nofollow"><font size="2">edit</font></a></span></li>
1050                                <li id="cite_note-Valerio-97">
1051                                        ^ <a href="#cite_ref-Valerio_97-0"><sup><i><b><font size="2">a</font></b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Valerio_97-1"><sup><i><b><font size="2">b</font></b></i></sup></a> <span class="citation Journal">Bozza, Valerio (2009). &quot;Gravitational Lensing by Black Holes&quot;. <i><a href="/wiki/ArXiv" title="ArXiv">ar&Chi;iv</a>:<a class="external text" href="http://www.arxiv.org/abs/0911.2187" rel="nofollow">0911.2187</a></i> [gr-qc].</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Gravitational+Lensing+by+Black+Holes&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.aulast=Bozza&amp;rft.aufirst=Valerio&amp;rft.au=Bozza%2C%26%2332%3BValerio&amp;rft.date=2009&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
1052                                <li id="cite_note-98">
1053                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-98">^</a></b> <span class="citation Journal">Kovacs; Cheng; Harko (2009). &quot;Can stellar mass black holes be quark stars?&quot;. <i><a href="/wiki/ArXiv" title="ArXiv">ar&Chi;iv</a>:<a class="external text" href="http://www.arxiv.org/abs/0908.2672" rel="nofollow">0908.2672</a></i> [astro-ph.HE].</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Can+stellar+mass+black+holes+be+quark+stars%3F&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.aulast=Kovacs&amp;rft.au=Kovacs&amp;rft.au=Cheng&amp;rft.au=Harko&amp;rft.date=2009&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
1054                                <li id="cite_note-99">
1055                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-99">^</a></b> <span class="citation Journal">Alexander Kusenko (2006). &quot;Properties and signatures of supersymmetric Q-balls&quot;. <i><a href="/wiki/ArXiv" title="ArXiv">ar&Chi;iv</a>:<a class="external text" href="http://www.arxiv.org/abs/hep-ph/0612159" rel="nofollow">hep-ph/0612159</a></i> [hep-ph].</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Properties+and+signatures+of+supersymmetric+Q-balls&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.aulast=Alexander+Kusenko&amp;rft.au=Alexander+Kusenko&amp;rft.date=2006&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
1056                                <li id="cite_note-100">
1057                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-100">^</a></b> <span class="citation Journal">Hansson, J.; Sandin, F. (2005). &quot;Preon stars: a new class of cosmic compact objects&quot;. <i>Physics Letters B</i> <b>616</b>: 1. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a class="external text" href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.physletb.2005.04.034" rel="nofollow">10.1016/j.physletb.2005.04.034</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=Preon+stars%3A+a+new+class+of+cosmic+compact+objects&amp;rft.jtitle=Physics+Letters+B&amp;rft.aulast=Hansson&amp;rft.aufirst=J.&amp;rft.au=Hansson%2C%26%2332%3BJ.&amp;rft.au=Sandin%2C%26%2332%3BF.&amp;rft.date=2005&amp;rft.volume=616&amp;rft.pages=1&amp;rft_id=info:doi/10.1016%2Fj.physletb.2005.04.034&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span> <span class="plainlinks noprint" style="font-size: smaller"><a class="external text" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:Cite_doi/10.1016.2Fj.physletb.2005.04.034&amp;action=edit&amp;editintro=Template:Cite_doi/editintro2" rel="nofollow"><font size="2">edit</font></a></span></li>
1058                                <li id="cite_note-101">
1059                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-101">^</a></b> <span class="citation Journal">Kiefer, C. (2006). &quot;Quantum gravity: general introduction and recent developments&quot;. <i>Annalen der Physik</i> <b>15</b>: 129&ndash;148. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a class="external text" href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1002%2Fandp.200510175" rel="nofollow">10.1002/andp.200510175</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=Quantum+gravity%3A+general+introduction+and+recent+developments&amp;rft.jtitle=Annalen+der+Physik&amp;rft.aulast=Kiefer&amp;rft.aufirst=C.&amp;rft.au=Kiefer%2C%26%2332%3BC.&amp;rft.date=2006&amp;rft.volume=15&amp;rft.pages=129%E2%80%93148&amp;rft_id=info:doi/10.1002%2Fandp.200510175&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span> <span class="plainlinks noprint" style="font-size: smaller"><a class="external text" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:Cite_doi/10.1002.2Fandp.200510175&amp;action=edit&amp;editintro=Template:Cite_doi/editintro2" rel="nofollow"><font size="2">edit</font></a></span></li>
1060                                <li id="cite_note-102">
1061                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-102">^</a></b> <span class="citation Journal">Skenderis, K.; Taylor, M. (2008). &quot;The fuzzball proposal for black holes&quot;. <i>Physics Reports</i> <b>467</b>: 117. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a class="external text" href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.physrep.2008.08.001" rel="nofollow">10.1016/j.physrep.2008.08.001</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=The+fuzzball+proposal+for+black+holes&amp;rft.jtitle=Physics+Reports&amp;rft.aulast=Skenderis&amp;rft.aufirst=K.&amp;rft.au=Skenderis%2C%26%2332%3BK.&amp;rft.au=Taylor%2C%26%2332%3BM.&amp;rft.date=2008&amp;rft.volume=467&amp;rft.pages=117&amp;rft_id=info:doi/10.1016%2Fj.physrep.2008.08.001&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span> <span class="plainlinks noprint" style="font-size: smaller"><a class="external text" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:Cite_doi/10.1016.2Fj.physrep.2008.08.001&amp;action=edit&amp;editintro=Template:Cite_doi/editintro2" rel="nofollow"><font size="2">edit</font></a></span></li>
1062                                <li id="cite_note-104">
1063                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-104">^</a></b> <span class="citation book"><a href="/wiki/Stephen_Hawking" title="Stephen Hawking">Hawking, Stephen</a> (1998). <i><a href="/wiki/A_Brief_History_of_Time" title="A Brief History of Time">A Brief History of Time</a></i>. New York: Bantam Books. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&nbsp;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-553-38016-8" title="Special:BookSources/0-553-38016-8">0-553-38016-8</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=%5B%5BA+Brief+History+of+Time%5D%5D&amp;rft.aulast=Hawking&amp;rft.aufirst=Stephen&amp;rft.au=Hawking%2C%26%2332%3BStephen&amp;rft.date=1998&amp;rft.place=New+York&amp;rft.pub=Bantam+Books&amp;rft.isbn=0-553-38016-8&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span><sup class="noprint Inline-Template" style="white-space: nowrap" title="This citation requires a reference to the specific page or range of pages in which the material appears"><font size="2">[<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Citing_sources" title="Wikipedia:Citing sources">page&nbsp;needed</a></i>]</font></sup></li>
1064                                <li id="cite_note-wald99-105">
1065                                        ^ <a href="#cite_ref-wald99_105-0"><sup><i><b><font size="2">a</font></b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-wald99_105-1"><sup><i><b><font size="2">b</font></b></i></sup></a> <span class="citation Journal">Wald (1999). &quot;The Thermodynamics of Black Holes&quot;. <i><a href="/wiki/ArXiv" title="ArXiv">ar&Chi;iv</a>:<a class="external text" href="http://www.arxiv.org/abs/gr-qc/9912119v2" rel="nofollow">gr-qc/9912119v2</a></i> [gr-qc].</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=The+Thermodynamics+of+Black+Holes&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.aulast=Wald&amp;rft.au=Wald&amp;rft.date=1999&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
1066                                <li id="cite_note-106">
1067                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-106">^</a></b> <span class="citation Journal">Gerard &#39;t Hooft (2000). &quot;The Holographic Principle&quot;. <i><a href="/wiki/ArXiv" title="ArXiv">ar&Chi;iv</a>:<a class="external text" href="http://www.arxiv.org/abs/hep-th/0003004" rel="nofollow">hep-th/0003004</a></i> [hep-th].</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=The+Holographic+Principle&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.aulast=Gerard+%27t+Hooft&amp;rft.au=Gerard+%27t+Hooft&amp;rft.date=2000&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
1068                                <li id="cite_note-PlayDice000-107">
1069                                        <b><a href="#cite_ref-PlayDice000_107-0">^</a></b> <span class="citation web"><a href="/wiki/Stephen_Hawking" title="Stephen Hawking">Hawking, Stephen</a>. <a class="external text" href="http://www.hawking.org.uk/index.php/lectures/publiclectures/64" rel="nofollow">&quot;Does God Play Dice?&quot;</a><span class="printonly">. <a class="external free" href="http://www.hawking.org.uk/index.php/lectures/publiclectures/64" rel="nofollow">http://www.hawking.org.uk/index.php/lectures/publiclectures/64</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2009-03-14</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Does+God+Play+Dice%3F&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.aulast=Hawking&amp;rft.aufirst=Stephen&amp;rft.au=Hawking%2C%26%2332%3BStephen&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.hawking.org.uk%2Findex.php%2Flectures%2Fpubliclectures%2F64&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
1070                        </ol>
1071                </div>
1072                <h2>
1073                        <span class="mw-headline" id="Further_reading">Further reading</span></h2>
1074                <dl>
1075                        <dt>
1076                                Popular reading</dt>
1077                </dl>
1078                <ul>
1079                        <li>
1080                                <span class="citation book">Ferguson, Kitty (1991). <i>Black Holes in Space-Time</i>. Watts Franklin. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&nbsp;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-531-12524-6" title="Special:BookSources/0-531-12524-6">0-531-12524-6</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Black+Holes+in+Space-Time&amp;rft.aulast=Ferguson%2C+Kitty&amp;rft.au=Ferguson%2C+Kitty&amp;rft.date=1991&amp;rft.pub=Watts+Franklin&amp;rft.isbn=0-531-12524-6&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span>.</li>
1081                        <li>
1082                                <span class="citation book"><a href="/wiki/Stephen_Hawking" title="Stephen Hawking">Hawking, Stephen</a> (1988). <i><a href="/wiki/A_Brief_History_of_Time" title="A Brief History of Time">A Brief History of Time</a></i>. Bantam Books, Inc. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&nbsp;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-553-38016-8" title="Special:BookSources/0-553-38016-8">0-553-38016-8</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=%5B%5BA+Brief+History+of+Time%5D%5D&amp;rft.aulast=Hawking&amp;rft.aufirst=Stephen&amp;rft.au=Hawking%2C%26%2332%3BStephen&amp;rft.date=1988&amp;rft.pub=Bantam+Books%2C+Inc&amp;rft.isbn=0-553-38016-8&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span>.</li>
1083                        <li>
1084                                <span class="citation book"><a href="/wiki/Stephen_Hawking" title="Stephen Hawking">Hawking, Stephen</a>; <a href="/wiki/Roger_Penrose" title="Roger Penrose">Penrose, Roger</a> (1996). <a class="external text" href="http://books.google.com/?id=LstaQTXP65cC" rel="nofollow"><i>The Nature of Space and Time</i></a>. Princeton University Press. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&nbsp;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-691-03791-2" title="Special:BookSources/0-691-03791-2">0-691-03791-2</a><span class="printonly">. <a class="external free" href="http://books.google.com/?id=LstaQTXP65cC" rel="nofollow">http://books.google.com/?id=LstaQTXP65cC</a></span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=The+Nature+of+Space+and+Time&amp;rft.aulast=Hawking&amp;rft.aufirst=Stephen&amp;rft.au=Hawking%2C%26%2332%3BStephen&amp;rft.au=Penrose%2C%26%2332%3BRoger&amp;rft.date=1996&amp;rft.pub=Princeton+University+Press&amp;rft.isbn=0-691-03791-2&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2F%3Fid%3DLstaQTXP65cC&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span>.</li>
1085                        <li>
1086                                <span class="citation book"><a href="/wiki/Fulvio_Melia" title="Fulvio Melia">Melia, Fulvio</a> (2003). <i>The Black Hole at the Center of Our Galaxy</i>. Princeton U Press. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&nbsp;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-691-09505-9" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-691-09505-9">978-0-691-09505-9</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=The+Black+Hole+at+the+Center+of+Our+Galaxy&amp;rft.aulast=%5B%5BFulvio+Melia%7CMelia%2C+Fulvio%5D%5D&amp;rft.au=%5B%5BFulvio+Melia%7CMelia%2C+Fulvio%5D%5D&amp;rft.date=2003&amp;rft.pub=Princeton+U+Press&amp;rft.isbn=978-0-691-09505-9&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span>.</li>
1087                        <li>
1088                                <span class="citation book">Melia, Fulvio (2003). <i>The Edge of Infinity. Supermassive Black Holes in the Universe</i>. Cambridge U Press. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&nbsp;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-521-81405-8" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-521-81405-8">978-0-521-81405-8</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=The+Edge+of+Infinity.+Supermassive+Black+Holes+in+the+Universe&amp;rft.aulast=Melia%2C+Fulvio&amp;rft.au=Melia%2C+Fulvio&amp;rft.date=2003&amp;rft.pub=Cambridge+U+Press&amp;rft.isbn=978-0-521-81405-8&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span>.</li>
1089                        <li>
1090                                <span class="citation book">Pickover, Clifford (1998). <i>Black Holes: A Traveler&#39;s Guide</i>. Wiley, John &amp; Sons, Inc. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&nbsp;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-471-19704-1" title="Special:BookSources/0-471-19704-1">0-471-19704-1</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Black+Holes%3A+A+Traveler%27s+Guide&amp;rft.aulast=Pickover%2C+Clifford&amp;rft.au=Pickover%2C+Clifford&amp;rft.date=1998&amp;rft.pub=Wiley%2C+John+%26+Sons%2C+Inc&amp;rft.isbn=0-471-19704-1&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span>.</li>
1091                        <li>
1092                                <span class="citation web">Stern, B. (2008). <a class="external text" href="http://www.wikilivres.info/wiki/Blackhole_%28Stern%29" rel="nofollow">&quot;Blackhole&quot;</a><span class="printonly">. <a class="external free" href="http://www.wikilivres.info/wiki/Blackhole_%28Stern%29" rel="nofollow">http://www.wikilivres.info/wiki/Blackhole_%28Stern%29</a></span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Blackhole&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.aulast=Stern&amp;rft.aufirst=B.&amp;rft.au=Stern%2C%26%2332%3BB.&amp;rft.date=2008&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.wikilivres.info%2Fwiki%2FBlackhole_%2528Stern%2529&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span>, poem.</li>
1093                        <li>
1094                                <span class="citation book"><a href="/wiki/Kip_Thorne" title="Kip Thorne">Thorne, Kip S.</a> (1994). <i><a href="/wiki/Black_Holes_and_Time_Warps" title="Black Holes and Time Warps">Black Holes and Time Warps</a></i>. Norton, W. W. &amp; Company, Inc. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&nbsp;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-393-31276-3" title="Special:BookSources/0-393-31276-3">0-393-31276-3</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=%5B%5BBlack+Holes+and+Time+Warps%5D%5D&amp;rft.aulast=Thorne%2C+Kip+S.&amp;rft.au=Thorne%2C+Kip+S.&amp;rft.date=1994&amp;rft.pub=Norton%2C+W.+W.+%26+Company%2C+Inc&amp;rft.isbn=0-393-31276-3&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span>.</li>
1095                        <li>
1096                                <span class="citation book" id="CITEREFWheeler2007">Wheeler, J. Craig (2007). <i>Cosmic Catastrophes</i> (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&nbsp;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-521-85714-7" title="Special:BookSources/0-521-85714-7">0-521-85714-7</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Cosmic+Catastrophes&amp;rft.aulast=Wheeler&amp;rft.aufirst=J.+Craig&amp;rft.au=Wheeler%2C%26%2332%3BJ.+Craig&amp;rft.date=2007&amp;rft.edition=2nd&amp;rft.pub=Cambridge+University+Press&amp;rft.isbn=0-521-85714-7&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
1097                </ul>
1098                <dl>
1099                        <dt>
1100                                University textbooks and monographs</dt>
1101                </dl>
1102                <ul>
1103                        <li>
1104                                <span class="citation book" id="CITEREFCarroll2004">Carroll, Sean M. (2004). <i>Spacetime and Geometry</i>. Addison Wesley. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&nbsp;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-8053-8732-3" title="Special:BookSources/0-8053-8732-3">0-8053-8732-3</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Spacetime+and+Geometry&amp;rft.aulast=Carroll&amp;rft.aufirst=Sean+M.&amp;rft.au=Carroll%2C%26%2332%3BSean+M.&amp;rft.date=2004&amp;rft.pub=Addison+Wesley&amp;rft.isbn=0-8053-8732-3&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span>, the lecture notes on which the book was based are available for free from Sean Carroll&#39;s <a class="external text" href="http://pancake.uchicago.edu/~carroll/notes/" rel="nofollow">website</a>.</li>
1105                        <li>
1106                                <span class="citation book">Carter, B. (1973). &quot;Black hole equilibrium states&quot;. in <a class="mw-redirect" href="/wiki/Bryce_De_Witt" title="Bryce De Witt">DeWitt, B.S.</a>; DeWitt, C.. <i>Black Holes</i>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Black+hole+equilibrium+states&amp;rft.atitle=Black+Holes&amp;rft.aulast=Carter&amp;rft.aufirst=B.&amp;rft.au=Carter%2C%26%2332%3BB.&amp;rft.date=1973&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span>.</li>
1107                        <li>
1108                                <span class="citation book">Chandrasekhar, Subrahmanyan (1999). <i>Mathematical Theory of Black Holes</i>. Oxford University Press. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&nbsp;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-19-850370-9" title="Special:BookSources/0-19-850370-9">0-19-850370-9</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Mathematical+Theory+of+Black+Holes&amp;rft.aulast=Chandrasekhar%2C+Subrahmanyan&amp;rft.au=Chandrasekhar%2C+Subrahmanyan&amp;rft.date=1999&amp;rft.pub=Oxford+University+Press&amp;rft.isbn=0-19-850370-9&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span>.</li>
1109                        <li>
1110                                <span class="citation Journal" id="CITEREFFrolovNovikov1998">Frolov, V.P.; Novikov, I.D. (1998). <i>Black hole physics</i>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Black+hole+physics&amp;rft.aulast=Frolov&amp;rft.aufirst=V.P.&amp;rft.au=Frolov%2C%26%2332%3BV.P.&amp;rft.au=Novikov%2C%26%2332%3BI.D.&amp;rft.date=1998&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span>.</li>
1111                        <li>
1112                                <span class="citation book"><a href="/wiki/Stephen_Hawking" title="Stephen Hawking">Hawking, S.W.</a>; Ellis, G.F.R. (1973). <a class="external text" href="http://books.google.com/?id=QagG_KI7Ll8C" rel="nofollow"><i>Large Scale Structure of space time</i></a>. Cambridge University Press. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&nbsp;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0521099064" title="Special:BookSources/0521099064">0521099064</a><span class="printonly">. <a class="external free" href="http://books.google.com/?id=QagG_KI7Ll8C" rel="nofollow">http://books.google.com/?id=QagG_KI7Ll8C</a></span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Large+Scale+Structure+of+space+time&amp;rft.aulast=Hawking&amp;rft.aufirst=S.W.&amp;rft.au=Hawking%2C%26%2332%3BS.W.&amp;rft.au=Ellis%2C%26%2332%3BG.F.R.&amp;rft.date=1973&amp;rft.pub=Cambridge+University+Press&amp;rft.isbn=0521099064&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2F%3Fid%3DQagG_KI7Ll8C&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span>.</li>
1113                        <li>
1114                                <span class="citation book"><a href="/wiki/Fulvio_Melia" title="Fulvio Melia">Melia, Fulvio</a> (2007). <i>The Galactic Supermassive Black Hole</i>. Princeton U Press. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&nbsp;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-691-13129-0" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-691-13129-0">978-0-691-13129-0</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=The+Galactic+Supermassive+Black+Hole&amp;rft.aulast=%5B%5BFulvio+Melia%7CMelia%2C+Fulvio%5D%5D&amp;rft.au=%5B%5BFulvio+Melia%7CMelia%2C+Fulvio%5D%5D&amp;rft.date=2007&amp;rft.pub=Princeton+U+Press&amp;rft.isbn=978-0-691-13129-0&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span>.</li>
1115                        <li>
1116                                <span class="citation book">Taylor, Edwin F.; <a href="/wiki/John_Archibald_Wheeler" title="John Archibald Wheeler">Wheeler, John Archibald</a> (2000). <i>Exploring Black Holes</i>. Addison Wesley Longman. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&nbsp;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-201-38423-X" title="Special:BookSources/0-201-38423-X">0-201-38423-X</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Exploring+Black+Holes&amp;rft.aulast=Taylor%2C+Edwin+F.&amp;rft.au=Taylor%2C+Edwin+F.&amp;rft.au=Wheeler%2C+John+Archibald&amp;rft.date=2000&amp;rft.pub=Addison+Wesley+Longman&amp;rft.isbn=0-201-38423-X&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span>.</li>
1117                        <li>
1118                                <span class="citation book"><a href="/wiki/Kip_Thorne" title="Kip Thorne">Thorne, Kip S.</a>; <a href="/wiki/Charles_W._Misner" title="Charles W. Misner">Misner, Charles</a>; Wheeler, John (1973). <i>Gravitation</i>. W. H. Freeman and Company. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&nbsp;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-7167-0344-0" title="Special:BookSources/0-7167-0344-0">0-7167-0344-0</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Gravitation&amp;rft.aulast=Thorne%2C+Kip+S.&amp;rft.au=Thorne%2C+Kip+S.&amp;rft.au=Misner%2C+Charles&amp;rft.au=Wheeler%2C+John&amp;rft.date=1973&amp;rft.pub=W.+H.+Freeman+and+Company&amp;rft.isbn=0-7167-0344-0&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span>.</li>
1119                        <li>
1120                                <span class="citation book"><a href="/wiki/Robert_Wald" title="Robert Wald">Wald, Robert M.</a> (1992). <i>Space, Time, and Gravity: The Theory of the Big Bang and Black Holes</i>. University of Chicago Press. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&nbsp;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-226-87029-4" title="Special:BookSources/0-226-87029-4">0-226-87029-4</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Space%2C+Time%2C+and+Gravity%3A+The+Theory+of+the+Big+Bang+and+Black+Holes&amp;rft.aulast=Wald%2C+Robert+M.&amp;rft.au=Wald%2C+Robert+M.&amp;rft.date=1992&amp;rft.pub=University+of+Chicago+Press&amp;rft.isbn=0-226-87029-4&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span>.</li>
1121                </ul>
1122                <dl>
1123                        <dt>
1124                                Review papers</dt>
1125                </dl>
1126                <ul>
1127                        <li>
1128                                <span class="citation Journal" id="CITEREFDetweiler.2C_S.1981">Detweiler, S. (1981). &quot;Resource letter BH-1: Black holes&quot;. <i>American Journal of Physics</i> <b>49</b> (5, pp): 394&ndash;400. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a class="external text" href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1119%2F1.12686" rel="nofollow">10.1119/1.12686</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=Resource+letter+BH-1%3A+Black+holes&amp;rft.jtitle=American+Journal+of+Physics&amp;rft.aulast=Detweiler%2C+S.&amp;rft.au=Detweiler%2C+S.&amp;rft.date=1981&amp;rft.volume=49&amp;rft.issue=5%2C+pp&amp;rft.pages=394%E2%80%93400&amp;rft_id=info:doi/10.1119%2F1.12686&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
1129                        <li>
1130                                <span class="citation Journal">Gallo, E.; Marolf, D. (2009). &quot;Resource Letter BH-2: Black Holes&quot;. <i>American Journal of Physics</i> <b>77</b>: 294. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a class="external text" href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1119%2F1.3056569" rel="nofollow">10.1119/1.3056569</a>. <a href="/wiki/ArXiv" title="ArXiv">arXiv</a>:<a class="external text" href="http://arxiv.org/abs/0806.2316" rel="nofollow">0806.2316</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=Resource+Letter+BH-2%3A+Black+Holes&amp;rft.jtitle=American+Journal+of+Physics&amp;rft.aulast=Gallo&amp;rft.aufirst=E.&amp;rft.au=Gallo%2C%26%2332%3BE.&amp;rft.au=Marolf%2C%26%2332%3BD.&amp;rft.date=2009&amp;rft.volume=77&amp;rft.pages=294&amp;rft_id=info:doi/10.1119%2F1.3056569&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span> <span class="plainlinks noprint" style="font-size: smaller"><a class="external text" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:Cite_doi/10.1119.2F1.3056569&amp;action=edit&amp;editintro=Template:Cite_doi/editintro2" rel="nofollow"><font size="2">edit</font></a></span></li>
1131                        <li>
1132                                <span class="citation Journal">Hughes, Scott A. (2005). &quot;Trust but verify: The case for astrophysical black holes&quot;. <i><a href="/wiki/ArXiv" title="ArXiv">ar&Chi;iv</a>:<a class="external text" href="http://www.arxiv.org/abs/hep-ph/0511217v2" rel="nofollow">hep-ph/0511217v2</a></i> [hep-ph].</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Trust+but+verify%3A+The+case+for+astrophysical+black+holes&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.aulast=Hughes&amp;rft.aufirst=Scott+A.&amp;rft.au=Hughes%2C%26%2332%3BScott+A.&amp;rft.date=2005&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Black_hole"><span style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></span> Lecture notes from 2005 <a class="mw-redirect" href="/wiki/SLAC" title="SLAC">SLAC</a> Summer Institute.</li>
1133                </ul>
1134                <h2>
1135                        <span class="mw-headline" id="External_links">External links</span></h2>
1136                <table class="metadata mbox-small plainlinks" style="border-bottom: #aaa 1px solid; border-left: #aaa 1px solid; background-color: #f9f9f9; border-top: #aaa 1px solid; border-right: #aaa 1px solid">
1137                        <tbody>
1138                                <tr>
1139                                        <td class="mbox-image">
1140                                                <img alt="" height="40" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4a/Commons-logo.svg/30px-Commons-logo.svg.png" width="30" /></td>
1141                                        <td class="mbox-text">
1142                                                Wikimedia Commons has media related to: <i><b><a class="extiw" href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Black_holes" title="commons:Category:Black holes">Black holes</a></b></i></td>
1143                                </tr>
1144                        </tbody>
1145                </table>
1146                <ul>
1147                        <li>
1148                                <a href="/wiki/Stanford_Encyclopedia_of_Philosophy" title="Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy">Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy</a>: &quot;<a class="external text" href="http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/spacetime-singularities/" rel="nofollow">Singularities and Black Holes</a>&quot; by Erik Curiel and Peter Bokulich.</li>
1149                        <li>
1150                                &quot;<a class="external text" href="http://www.scholarpedia.org/article/Black_hole" rel="nofollow">Black hole</a>&quot; on Scholarpedia.</li>
1151                        <li>
1152                                <a class="external text" href="http://hubblesite.org/explore_astronomy/black_holes/" rel="nofollow">Black Holes: Gravity&#39;s Relentless Pull</a> - Interactive multimedia Web site about the physics and astronomy of black holes from the Space Telescope Science Institute</li>
1153                        <li>
1154                                <a class="external text" href="http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/htmltest/gifcity/bh_pub_faq.html" rel="nofollow">FAQ on black holes</a></li>
1155                        <li>
1156                                &quot;<a class="external text" href="http://casa.colorado.edu/~ajsh/schwp.html" rel="nofollow">Schwarzschild Geometry</a>&quot; on <a class="external text" href="http://casa.colorado.edu/~ajsh/" rel="nofollow">Andrew Hamilton&rsquo;s website</a></li>
1157                        <li>
1158                                <a class="external text" href="https://blue.utb.edu/newsandinfo/2006%AD%AD_04_13BreakthroughBlackHoles.htm" rel="nofollow">UT Brownsville Group Simulates Spinning Black-Hole Binaries</a></li>
1159                        <li>
1160                                <a class="external text" href="http://library.thinkquest.org/C007571/english/advance/core8.htm" rel="nofollow">Advanced Mathematics of Black Hole Evaporation</a></li>
1161                </ul>
1162                <dl>
1163                        <dt>
1164                                Videos</dt>
1165                </dl>
1166                <ul>
1167                        <li>
1168                                <a class="external text" href="http://www.eso.org/public/videos/eso0846b/" rel="nofollow">16-year long study tracks stars orbiting Milky Way black hole</a></li>
1169                        <li>
1170                                <a class="external text" href="http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-6215434494081736769&amp;hl=en" rel="nofollow">Yale University Video Lecture: Introduction to Black Holes</a> at Google Video.</li>
1171                        <li>
1172                                <a class="external text" href="http://www.mpe.mpg.de/ir/GC/index.php" rel="nofollow">Movie of Black Hole Candidate from Max Planck Institute</a></li>
1173                </ul>
1174                <dl>
1175                        <dt>
1176                                News</dt>
1177                </dl>
1178                <ul>
1179                        <li>
1180                                &quot;<a class="external text" href="http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/7774287.stm" rel="nofollow">Black Hole confirmed in Milky Way.</a>&quot; Retrieved December 10, 2008</li>
1181                        <li>
1182                                <a class="external text" href="http://www.sciencedaily.com/news/space_time/black_holes/" rel="nofollow">Black Hole Research News</a></li>
1183                </ul>
1184                <table cellspacing="0" class="navbox">
1185                        <tbody>
1186                                <tr>
1187                                        <td style="padding-bottom: 2px; padding-left: 2px; padding-right: 2px; padding-top: 2px">
1188                                                <table cellspacing="0" class="nowraplinks collapsible uncollapsed" id="collapsibleTable6" style="width: 100%; background: none transparent scroll repeat 0% 0%">
1189                                                        <tbody>
1190                                                                <tr>
1191                                                                        <th class="navbox-title" colspan="3" style="background: darkgrey">
1192                                                                                <span class="collapseButton">[<a href="#" id="collapseButton6">hide</a>]</span>
1193                                                                                <div style="text-align: left; width: 6em; float: left">
1194                                                                                        <div class="noprint plainlinks navbar" style="border-bottom-style: none; padding-bottom: 0px; border-right-style: none; padding-left: 0px; padding-right: 0px; border-top-style: none; background: darkgrey; font-size: xx-small; border-left-style: none; font-weight: normal; padding-top: 0px">
1195                                                                                                <a href="/wiki/Template:Black_holes" title="Template:Black holes"><span style="border-bottom-style: none; border-right-style: none; border-top-style: none; background: darkgrey; border-left-style: none" title="View this template">v</span></a>&nbsp;<span style="font-size: 80%">&bull;</span>&nbsp;<a href="/wiki/Template_talk:Black_holes" title="Template talk:Black holes"><span style="border-bottom-style: none; border-right-style: none; border-top-style: none; background: darkgrey; border-left-style: none" title="Discuss this template">d</span></a>&nbsp;<span style="font-size: 80%">&bull;</span>&nbsp;<a class="external text" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:Black_holes&amp;action=edit" rel="nofollow"><span style="border-bottom-style: none; border-right-style: none; border-top-style: none; background: darkgrey; border-left-style: none" title="Edit this template">e</span></a></div>
1196                                                                                </div>
1197                                                                                <span style="font-size: 110%"><strong class="selflink">Black holes</strong></span></th>
1198                                                                </tr>
1199                                                                <tr style="height: 2px">
1200                                                                        <td>
1201                                                                                &nbsp;</td>
1202                                                                </tr>
1203                                                                <tr>
1204                                                                        <td class="navbox-group" style="background: black; color: white">
1205                                                                                Types</td>
1206                                                                        <td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align: left; border-left: 2px solid; padding-bottom: 0px; padding-left: 0px; width: 100%; padding-right: 0px; padding-top: 0px">
1207                                                                                <div style="padding-bottom: 0em; padding-left: 0.25em; padding-right: 0.25em; padding-top: 0em">
1208                                                                                        <a href="/wiki/Schwarzschild_metric" title="Schwarzschild metric">Schwarzschild</a><span style="font-weight: bold">&nbsp;&middot;</span> <a href="/wiki/Rotating_black_hole" title="Rotating black hole">Rotating</a><span style="font-weight: bold">&nbsp;&middot;</span> <a href="/wiki/Charged_black_hole" title="Charged black hole">Charged</a><span style="font-weight: bold">&nbsp;&middot;</span> <a href="/wiki/Virtual_black_hole" title="Virtual black hole">Virtual</a></div>
1209                                                                        </td>
1210                                                                        <td rowspan="15" style="padding-bottom: 0px; padding-left: 2px; width: 0%; padding-right: 0px; padding-top: 0px">
1211                                                                                <a class="image" href="/wiki/File:BlackHole.jpg"><img alt="BlackHole.jpg" height="64" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d4/BlackHole.jpg/80px-BlackHole.jpg" width="80" /></a></td>
1212                                                                </tr>
1213                                                                <tr style="height: 2px">
1214                                                                        <td>
1215                                                                                &nbsp;</td>
1216                                                                </tr>
1217                                                                <tr>
1218                                                                        <td class="navbox-group" style="background: black; color: white">
1219                                                                                Size</td>
1220                                                                        <td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align: left; border-left: 2px solid; padding-bottom: 0px; padding-left: 0px; width: 100%; padding-right: 0px; padding-top: 0px">
1221                                                                                <div style="padding-bottom: 0em; padding-left: 0.25em; padding-right: 0.25em; padding-top: 0em">
1222                                                                                        <a href="/wiki/Micro_black_hole" title="Micro black hole">Micro</a><span style="font-weight: bold">&nbsp;&middot;</span> <a href="/wiki/Extremal_black_hole" title="Extremal black hole">Extremal</a> (<a href="/wiki/Black_hole_electron" title="Black hole electron">Electron</a>)<span style="font-weight: bold">&nbsp;&middot;</span> <a href="/wiki/Stellar_black_hole" title="Stellar black hole">Stellar</a><span style="font-weight: bold">&nbsp;&middot;</span> <a href="/wiki/Intermediate-mass_black_hole" title="Intermediate-mass black hole">Intermediate-mass</a><span style="font-weight: bold">&nbsp;&middot;</span> <a href="/wiki/Supermassive_black_hole" title="Supermassive black hole">Supermassive</a><span style="font-weight: bold">&nbsp;&middot;</span> <a href="/wiki/Quasar" title="Quasar">Quasar</a> (<a href="/wiki/Active_galactic_nucleus" title="Active galactic nucleus">Active galactic nucleus</a><span style="font-weight: bold">&nbsp;&middot;</span> <a href="/wiki/Blazar" title="Blazar">Blazar</a>)</div>
1223                                                                        </td>
1224                                                                </tr>
1225                                                                <tr style="height: 2px">
1226                                                                        <td>
1227                                                                                &nbsp;</td>
1228                                                                </tr>
1229                                                                <tr>
1230                                                                        <td class="navbox-group" style="background: black; color: white">
1231                                                                                Formation</td>
1232                                                                        <td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align: left; border-left: 2px solid; padding-bottom: 0px; padding-left: 0px; width: 100%; padding-right: 0px; padding-top: 0px">
1233                                                                                <div style="padding-bottom: 0em; padding-left: 0.25em; padding-right: 0.25em; padding-top: 0em">
1234                                                                                        <a href="/wiki/Stellar_evolution" title="Stellar evolution">Stellar evolution</a><span style="font-weight: bold">&nbsp;&middot;</span> <a href="/wiki/Gravitational_collapse" title="Gravitational collapse">Collapse</a><span style="font-weight: bold">&nbsp;&middot;</span> <a href="/wiki/Compact_star" title="Compact star">Compact star</a> (<a href="/wiki/Neutron_star" title="Neutron star">Neutron</a><span style="font-weight: bold">&nbsp;&middot;</span> <a href="/wiki/Compact_star#Exotic_stars" title="Compact star">Exotic</a><span style="font-weight: bold">&nbsp;&middot;</span> <a href="/wiki/Quark_star" title="Quark star">Quark</a><span style="font-weight: bold">&nbsp;&middot;</span> <a class="mw-redirect" href="/wiki/Preon_star" title="Preon star">Preon</a><span style="font-weight: bold">&nbsp;&middot;</span> <a href="/wiki/Q_star" title="Q star">Q</a>)<span style="font-weight: bold">&nbsp;&middot;</span> <a href="/wiki/Tolman%E2%80%93Oppenheimer%E2%80%93Volkoff_limit" title="Tolman–Oppenheimer–Volkoff limit">Tolman&ndash;Oppenheimer&ndash;Volkoff limit</a><span style="font-weight: bold">&nbsp;&middot;</span> <a href="/wiki/White_dwarf" title="White dwarf">White dwarf</a><span style="font-weight: bold">&nbsp;&middot;</span> <a href="/wiki/Supernova" title="Supernova">Supernova</a><span style="font-weight: bold">&nbsp;&middot;</span> <a href="/wiki/Hypernova" title="Hypernova">Hypernova</a><span style="font-weight: bold">&nbsp;&middot;</span> <a class="mw-redirect" href="/wiki/Gamma_ray_burst" title="Gamma ray burst">Gamma ray burst</a></div>
1235                                                                        </td>
1236                                                                </tr>
1237                                                                <tr style="height: 2px">
1238                                                                        <td>
1239                                                                                &nbsp;</td>
1240                                                                </tr>
1241                                                                <tr>
1242                                                                        <td class="navbox-group" style="background: black; color: white">
1243                                                                                Properties</td>
1244                                                                        <td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align: left; border-left: 2px solid; padding-bottom: 0px; padding-left: 0px; width: 100%; padding-right: 0px; padding-top: 0px">
1245                                                                                <div style="padding-bottom: 0em; padding-left: 0.25em; padding-right: 0.25em; padding-top: 0em">
1246                                                                                        <a href="/wiki/Black_hole_thermodynamics" title="Black hole thermodynamics">Thermodynamics</a><span style="font-weight: bold">&nbsp;&middot;</span> <a href="/wiki/Schwarzschild_radius" title="Schwarzschild radius">Schwarzschild radius</a><span style="font-weight: bold">&nbsp;&middot;</span> <a href="/wiki/M-sigma_relation" title="M-sigma relation">M-sigma relation</a><span style="font-weight: bold">&nbsp;&middot;</span> <a href="/wiki/Event_horizon" title="Event horizon">Event horizon</a><span style="font-weight: bold">&nbsp;&middot;</span> <a href="/wiki/Quasi-periodic_oscillations" title="Quasi-periodic oscillations">Quasi-periodic oscillations</a><span style="font-weight: bold">&nbsp;&middot;</span> <a href="/wiki/Photon_sphere" title="Photon sphere">Photon sphere</a><span style="font-weight: bold">&nbsp;&middot;</span> <a href="/wiki/Ergosphere" title="Ergosphere">Ergosphere</a><span style="font-weight: bold">&nbsp;&middot;</span> <a href="/wiki/Hawking_radiation" title="Hawking radiation">Hawking radiation</a><span style="font-weight: bold">&nbsp;&middot;</span> <a href="/wiki/Penrose_process" title="Penrose process">Penrose process</a><span style="font-weight: bold">&nbsp;&middot;</span> <a href="/wiki/Bondi_accretion" title="Bondi accretion">Bondi accretion</a><span style="font-weight: bold">&nbsp;&middot;</span> <a href="/wiki/Spaghettification" title="Spaghettification">Spaghettification</a><span style="font-weight: bold">&nbsp;&middot;</span> <a href="/wiki/Gravitational_lens" title="Gravitational lens">Gravitational lens</a></div>
1247                                                                        </td>
1248                                                                </tr>
1249                                                                <tr style="height: 2px">
1250                                                                        <td>
1251                                                                                &nbsp;</td>
1252                                                                </tr>
1253                                                                <tr>
1254                                                                        <td class="navbox-group" style="background: black; color: white">
1255                                                                                Models</td>
1256                                                                        <td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align: left; border-left: 2px solid; padding-bottom: 0px; padding-left: 0px; width: 100%; padding-right: 0px; padding-top: 0px">
1257                                                                                <div style="padding-bottom: 0em; padding-left: 0.25em; padding-right: 0.25em; padding-top: 0em">
1258                                                                                        <a href="/wiki/Gravitational_singularity" title="Gravitational singularity">Gravitational singularity</a> (<a href="/wiki/Penrose%E2%80%93Hawking_singularity_theorems" title="Penrose–Hawking singularity theorems">Penrose&ndash;Hawking singularity theorems</a>) <span style="font-weight: bold">&nbsp;&middot;</span> <a href="/wiki/Primordial_black_hole" title="Primordial black hole">Primordial black hole</a><span style="font-weight: bold">&nbsp;&middot;</span> <a href="/wiki/Gravastar" title="Gravastar">Gravastar</a><span style="font-weight: bold">&nbsp;&middot;</span> <a href="/wiki/Dark_star_(Newtonian_mechanics)" title="Dark star (Newtonian mechanics)">Dark star</a><span style="font-weight: bold">&nbsp;&middot;</span> <a href="/wiki/Dark_energy_star" title="Dark energy star">Dark energy star</a><span style="font-weight: bold">&nbsp;&middot;</span> <a href="/wiki/Black_star_(semiclassical_gravity)" title="Black star (semiclassical gravity)">Black star</a><span style="font-weight: bold">&nbsp;&middot;</span> <a href="/wiki/Magnetospheric_eternally_collapsing_object" title="Magnetospheric eternally collapsing object">Magnetospheric eternally collapsing object</a><span style="font-weight: bold">&nbsp;&middot;</span> <a href="/wiki/Fuzzball_(string_theory)" title="Fuzzball (string theory)">Fuzzball</a><span style="font-weight: bold">&nbsp;&middot;</span> <a href="/wiki/White_hole" title="White hole">White hole</a><span style="font-weight: bold">&nbsp;&middot;</span> <a href="/wiki/Naked_singularity" title="Naked singularity">Naked singularity</a><span style="font-weight: bold">&nbsp;&middot;</span> <a href="/wiki/Ring_singularity" title="Ring singularity">Ring singularity</a><span style="font-weight: bold">&nbsp;&middot;</span> <a href="/wiki/Immirzi_parameter" title="Immirzi parameter">Immirzi parameter</a><span style="font-weight: bold">&nbsp;&middot;</span> <a href="/wiki/Membrane_paradigm" title="Membrane paradigm">Membrane paradigm</a><span style="font-weight: bold">&nbsp;&middot;</span> <a href="/wiki/Kugelblitz_(astrophysics)" title="Kugelblitz (astrophysics)">Kugelblitz</a><span style="font-weight: bold">&nbsp;&middot;</span> <a href="/wiki/Wormhole" title="Wormhole">Wormhole</a></div>
1259                                                                        </td>
1260                                                                </tr>
1261                                                                <tr style="height: 2px">
1262                                                                        <td>
1263                                                                                &nbsp;</td>
1264                                                                </tr>
1265                                                                <tr>
1266                                                                        <td class="navbox-group" style="background: black; color: white">
1267                                                                                Issues</td>
1268                                                                        <td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align: left; border-left: 2px solid; padding-bottom: 0px; padding-left: 0px; width: 100%; padding-right: 0px; padding-top: 0px">
1269                                                                                <div style="padding-bottom: 0em; padding-left: 0.25em; padding-right: 0.25em; padding-top: 0em">
1270                                                                                        <a href="/wiki/No-hair_theorem" title="No-hair theorem">No hair theorem</a><span style="font-weight: bold">&nbsp;&middot;</span> <a href="/wiki/Black_hole_information_paradox" title="Black hole information paradox">Information paradox</a><span style="font-weight: bold">&nbsp;&middot;</span> <a href="/wiki/Cosmic_censorship_hypothesis" title="Cosmic censorship hypothesis">Cosmic censorship</a><span style="font-weight: bold">&nbsp;&middot;</span> <a href="/wiki/Nonsingular_black_hole_models" title="Nonsingular black hole models">Alternative models</a><span style="font-weight: bold">&nbsp;&middot;</span> <a href="/wiki/Holographic_principle" title="Holographic principle">Holographic principle</a> (<a href="/wiki/Susskind%E2%80%93Hawking_battle" title="Susskind–Hawking battle">Susskind&ndash;Hawking battle</a>)</div>
1271                                                                        </td>
1272                                                                </tr>
1273                                                                <tr style="height: 2px">
1274                                                                        <td>
1275                                                                                &nbsp;</td>
1276                                                                </tr>
1277                                                                <tr>
1278                                                                        <td class="navbox-group" style="background: black; color: white">
1279                                                                                Metrics</td>
1280                                                                        <td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align: left; border-left: 2px solid; padding-bottom: 0px; padding-left: 0px; width: 100%; padding-right: 0px; padding-top: 0px">
1281                                                                                <div style="padding-bottom: 0em; padding-left: 0.25em; padding-right: 0.25em; padding-top: 0em">
1282                                                                                        <a href="/wiki/Schwarzschild_metric" title="Schwarzschild metric">Schwarzschild</a><span style="font-weight: bold">&nbsp;&middot;</span> <a href="/wiki/Kerr_metric" title="Kerr metric">Kerr</a><span style="font-weight: bold">&nbsp;&middot;</span> <a href="/wiki/Reissner%E2%80%93Nordstr%C3%B6m_metric" title="Reissner–Nordström metric">Reissner&ndash;Nordstr&ouml;m</a><span style="font-weight: bold">&nbsp;&middot;</span> <a href="/wiki/Kerr%E2%80%93Newman_metric" title="Kerr–Newman metric">Kerr&ndash;Newman</a></div>
1283                                                                        </td>
1284                                                                </tr>
1285                                                                <tr style="height: 2px">
1286                                                                        <td>
1287                                                                                &nbsp;</td>
1288                                                                </tr>
1289                                                                <tr>
1290                                                                        <td class="navbox-group" style="background: black; color: white">
1291                                                                                Related</td>
1292                                                                        <td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align: left; border-left: 2px solid; padding-bottom: 0px; padding-left: 0px; width: 100%; padding-right: 0px; padding-top: 0px">
1293                                                                                <div style="padding-bottom: 0em; padding-left: 0.25em; padding-right: 0.25em; padding-top: 0em">
1294                                                                                        <a href="/wiki/List_of_black_holes" title="List of black holes">List of black holes</a><span style="font-weight: bold">&nbsp;&middot;</span> <a href="/wiki/Timeline_of_black_hole_physics" title="Timeline of black hole physics">Timeline of black hole physics</a><span style="font-weight: bold">&nbsp;&middot;</span> <a href="/wiki/Rossi_X-ray_Timing_Explorer" title="Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer">Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer</a><span style="font-weight: bold">&nbsp;&middot;</span> <a href="/wiki/Hypercompact_stellar_system" title="Hypercompact stellar system">Hypercompact stellar system</a></div>
1295                                                                        </td>
1296                                                                </tr>
1297                                                        </tbody>
1298                                                </table>
1299                                        </td>
1300                                </tr>
1301                        </tbody>
1302                </table>
1303                <p>
1304                        &nbsp;</p>
1305<!--
1306NewPP limit report
1307Preprocessor node count: 70629/1000000
1308Post-expand include size: 615820/2048000 bytes
1309Template argument size: 158409/2048000 bytes
1310Expensive parser function count: 22/500
1311--><!-- Saved in parser cache with key enwiki:pcache:idhash:4650-0!1!0!default!!en!4!edit=0!printable=1 and timestamp 20100809102428 -->                <div class="printfooter">
1312                        Retrieved from &quot;<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_hole">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_hole</a>&quot;</div>
1313<!-- /bodytext --><!-- catlinks -->             <div class="catlinks" id="catlinks">
1314                        <div id="mw-normal-catlinks">
1315                                <a href="/wiki/Special:Categories" title="Special:Categories">Categories</a>: <span dir="ltr"><a href="/wiki/Category:Black_holes" title="Category:Black holes">Black holes</a></span> | <span dir="ltr"><a href="/wiki/Category:Dark_matter" title="Category:Dark matter">Dark matter</a></span> | <span dir="ltr"><a href="/wiki/Category:Relativity" title="Category:Relativity">Relativity</a></span></div>
1316                        <div class="mw-hidden-cats-hidden" id="mw-hidden-catlinks">
1317                                Hidden categories: <span dir="ltr"><a href="/wiki/Category:Wikipedia_articles_needing_page_number_citations" title="Category:Wikipedia articles needing page number citations">Wikipedia articles needing page number citations</a></span> | <span dir="ltr"><a href="/wiki/Category:Wikipedia_semi-protected_pages" title="Category:Wikipedia semi-protected pages">Wikipedia semi-protected pages</a></span></div>
1318                </div>
1319<!-- /catlinks -->              <div class="visualClear">
1320                        &nbsp;</div>
1321        </div>
1322<!-- /bodyContent --></div>
1323<p>
1324<!-- /content --><!-- header --></p>
1325<div class="noprint" id="mw-head" jquery1281355532296="12" sizcache="2" sizset="0">
1326<!-- 0 -->      <div id="p-personal" sizcache="0" sizset="16">
1327                <h5>
1328                        Personal tools</h5>
1329                <ul>
1330                        <li id="pt-prefswitch-link-anon">
1331                                <a class="no-text-transform" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special:UsabilityInitiativePrefSwitch&amp;from=Black_hole&amp;fromquery=printable%3Dyes" title="Learn about new features">New features</a></li>
1332                        <li id="pt-login">
1333                                <a accesskey="o" href="/w/index.php?title=Special:UserLogin&amp;returnto=Black_hole&amp;returntoquery=printable%3Dyes" title="You are encouraged to log in; however, it is not mandatory. [alt-o]">Log in / create account</a></li>
1334                </ul>
1335        </div>
1336<!-- /0 -->     <div id="left-navigation" sizcache="0" sizset="17">
1337<!-- 0 -->              <div class="vectorTabs" id="p-namespaces" sizcache="0" sizset="17">
1338                        <h5>
1339                                Namespaces</h5>
1340                        <ul>
1341                                <li class="selected" id="ca-nstab-main">
1342                                        <a accesskey="c" href="/wiki/Black_hole" title="View the content page [alt-c]"><span>Article</span></a></li>
1343                                <li id="ca-talk">
1344                                        <a accesskey="t" href="/wiki/Talk:Black_hole" title="Discussion about the content page [alt-t]"><span>Discussion</span></a></li>
1345                        </ul>
1346                </div>
1347<!-- /0 --><!-- 1 -->           <div class="vectorMenu emptyPortlet" id="p-variants" sizcache="0" sizset="18">
1348                        <h5>
1349                                <span>Variants</span></h5>
1350                        <div class="menu" sizcache="0" sizset="18">
1351                                <ul>
1352                                </ul>
1353                        </div>
1354                </div>
1355<!-- /1 -->     </div>
1356        <div id="right-navigation" jquery1281355532296="11" sizcache="2" sizset="0">
1357<!-- 0 -->              <div class="vectorTabs" id="p-views" jquery1281355532296="10" sizcache="2" sizset="0">
1358                        <h5>
1359                                Views</h5>
1360                        <ul jquery1281355532296="9" sizcache="1" sizset="0">
1361                                <li class="selected" id="ca-view">
1362                                        <a href="/wiki/Black_hole"><span>Read</span></a></li>
1363                                <li id="ca-viewsource" jquery1281355532296="17">
1364                                        <a accesskey="e" href="/w/index.php?title=Black_hole&amp;action=edit" title="This page is protected.&#10;You can view its source [alt-e]"><span>View source</span></a></li>
1365                                <li class="collapsible " id="ca-history" jquery1281355532296="16">
1366                                        <a accesskey="h" href="/w/index.php?title=Black_hole&amp;action=history" title="Past versions of this page [alt-h]"><span>View history</span></a></li>
1367                        </ul>
1368                </div>
1369<!-- /0 --><!-- 1 -->           <div class="vectorMenu emptyPortlet" id="p-cactions" sizcache="0" sizset="20">
1370                        <h5>
1371                                <span>Actions</span></h5>
1372                        <div class="menu" sizcache="0" sizset="20">
1373                                <ul>
1374                                </ul>
1375                        </div>
1376                </div>
1377<!-- /1 --><!-- 2 -->           <div id="p-search" jquery1281355532296="21">
1378                        <h5>
1379                                <label for="searchInput">Search</label></h5>
1380                        <form action="/w/index.php" id="searchform" jquery1281355532296="19">
1381                                <input name="title" type="hidden" value="Special:Search" />
1382                                <div id="simpleSearch" jquery1281355532296="20">
1383                                        <input accesskey="f" autocomplete="off" class="placeholder" id="searchInput" jquery1281355532296="18" name="search" tabindex="1" title="Search Wikipedia [alt-f]" value="Search" /><button id="searchButton" name="button" title="Search Wikipedia for this text" type="submit"><img alt="Search" src="http://bits.wikimedia.org/skins-1.5/vector/images/search-ltr.png?283p" /></button></div>
1384                        </form>
1385                </div>
1386<!-- /2 -->     </div>
1387</div>
1388<p>
1389<!-- /header --><!-- panel --></p>
1390<div class="noprint collapsible-nav" id="mw-panel" sizcache="0" sizset="21">
1391<!-- logo -->   <div id="p-logo">
1392        </div>
1393<!-- /logo --><!-- navigation -->       <div class="portal first persistent" id="p-navigation" sizcache="0" sizset="21">
1394                <h5>
1395                        Navigation</h5>
1396                <div class="body" sizcache="0" sizset="21">
1397                        <ul>
1398                                <li id="n-mainpage-description">
1399                                        <a accesskey="z" href="/wiki/Main_Page" title="Visit the main page [alt-z]">Main page</a></li>
1400                                <li id="n-contents">
1401                                        <a href="/wiki/Portal:Contents" title="Guides to browsing Wikipedia">Contents</a></li>
1402                                <li id="n-featuredcontent">
1403                                        <a href="/wiki/Portal:Featured_content" title="Featured content — the best of Wikipedia">Featured content</a></li>
1404                                <li id="n-currentevents">
1405                                        <a href="/wiki/Portal:Current_events" title="Find background information on current events">Current events</a></li>
1406                                <li id="n-randompage">
1407                                        <a accesskey="x" href="/wiki/Special:Random" title="Load a random article [alt-x]">Random article</a></li>
1408                        </ul>
1409                </div>
1410        </div>
1411<!-- /navigation --><!-- SEARCH --><!-- /SEARCH --><!-- interaction --> <div class="portal expanded" id="p-interaction" sizcache="0" sizset="22">
1412                <h5 jquery1281355532296="5" tabindex="2">
1413                        Interaction</h5>
1414                <div class="body" jquery1281355532296="2" sizcache="0" sizset="22" style="display: block">
1415                        <ul>
1416                                <li id="n-aboutsite">
1417                                        <a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:About" title="Find out about Wikipedia">About Wikipedia</a></li>
1418                                <li id="n-portal">
1419                                        <a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Community_portal" title="About the project, what you can do, where to find things">Community portal</a></li>
1420                                <li id="n-recentchanges">
1421                                        <a accesskey="r" href="/wiki/Special:RecentChanges" title="The list of recent changes in the wiki [alt-r]">Recent changes</a></li>
1422                                <li id="n-contact">
1423                                        <a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Contact_us" title="How to contact Wikipedia">Contact Wikipedia</a></li>
1424                                <li id="n-sitesupport">
1425                                        <a href="http://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Support_Wikipedia/en" title="Support us">Donate to Wikipedia</a></li>
1426                                <li id="n-help">
1427                                        <a href="/wiki/Help:Contents" title="Guidance on how to use and edit Wikipedia">Help</a></li>
1428                        </ul>
1429                </div>
1430        </div>
1431<!-- /interaction --><!-- TOOLBOX -->   <div class="portal collapsed" id="p-tb" sizcache="0" sizset="23">
1432                <h5 jquery1281355532296="6" tabindex="3">
1433                        Toolbox</h5>
1434                <div class="body" sizcache="0" sizset="23">
1435                        <ul>
1436                                <li id="t-whatlinkshere">
1437                                        <a accesskey="j" href="/wiki/Special:WhatLinksHere/Black_hole" title="List of all English Wikipedia pages containing links to this page [alt-j]">What links here</a></li>
1438                                <li id="t-recentchangeslinked">
1439                                        <a accesskey="k" href="/wiki/Special:RecentChangesLinked/Black_hole" title="Recent changes in pages linked from this page [alt-k]">Related changes</a></li>
1440                                <li id="t-upload">
1441                                        <a accesskey="u" href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Upload" title="Upload files [alt-u]">Upload file</a></li>
1442                                <li id="t-specialpages">
1443                                        <a accesskey="q" href="/wiki/Special:SpecialPages" title="List of all special pages [alt-q]">Special pages</a></li>
1444                                <li id="t-permalink">
1445                                        <a href="/w/index.php?title=Black_hole&amp;oldid=377724278" title="Permanent link to this revision of the page">Permanent link</a></li>
1446                                <li id="t-cite">
1447                                        <a href="/w/index.php?title=Special:Cite&amp;page=Black_hole&amp;id=377724278" title="Information on how to cite this page">Cite this page</a></li>
1448                        </ul>
1449                </div>
1450        </div>
1451<!-- /TOOLBOX --><!-- coll-print_export -->     <div class="portal collapsed" id="p-coll-print_export" sizcache="0" sizset="24">
1452                <h5 jquery1281355532296="7" tabindex="4">
1453                        Print/export</h5>
1454                <div class="body" sizcache="0" sizset="24">
1455                        <ul id="collectionPortletList">
1456                                <li id="coll-create_a_book">
1457                                        <a href="/w/index.php?title=Special:Book&amp;bookcmd=book_creator&amp;referer=Black+hole" rel="nofollow" title="Create a book or page collection">Create a book</a></li>
1458                                <li id="coll-download-as-rl">
1459                                        <a href="/w/index.php?title=Special:Book&amp;bookcmd=render_article&amp;arttitle=Black+hole&amp;oldid=377724278&amp;writer=rl" rel="nofollow" title="Download a PDF version of this wiki page">Download as PDF</a></li>
1460                        </ul>
1461                </div>
1462        </div>
1463<!-- /coll-print_export --><!-- LANGUAGES -->   <div class="portal expanded" id="p-lang" sizcache="0" sizset="25">
1464                <h5 jquery1281355532296="8" tabindex="5">
1465                        Languages</h5>
1466                <div class="body" jquery1281355532296="4" sizcache="0" sizset="25" style="display: block">
1467                        <ul>
1468                                <li class="interwiki-af">
1469                                        <a href="http://af.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swartkolk" title="Swartkolk">Afrikaans</a></li>
1470                                <li class="interwiki-ar GA" title="This is a good article in another language.">
1471                                        <a href="http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%AB%D9%82%D8%A8_%D8%A3%D8%B3%D9%88%D8%AF" title="ثقب أسود">العربية</a></li>
1472                                <li class="interwiki-an">
1473                                        <a href="http://an.wikipedia.org/wiki/Forato_negro" title="Forato negro">Aragon&eacute;s</a></li>
1474                                <li class="interwiki-ast">
1475                                        <a href="http://ast.wikipedia.org/wiki/Furacu_prietu" title="Furacu prietu">Asturianu</a></li>
1476                                <li class="interwiki-az">
1477                                        <a href="http://az.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qara_d%C9%99lik" title="Qara dəlik">Azərbaycan</a></li>
1478                                <li class="interwiki-bn">
1479                                        <a href="http://bn.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E0%A6%95%E0%A7%83%E0%A6%B7%E0%A7%8D%E0%A6%A3_%E0%A6%AC%E0%A6%BF%E0%A6%AC%E0%A6%B0" title="কৃষ্ণ বিবর">বাংলা</a></li>
1480                                <li class="interwiki-zh-min-nan">
1481                                        <a href="http://zh-min-nan.wikipedia.org/wiki/O%CD%98-khang" title="O͘-khang">B&acirc;n-l&acirc;m-g&uacute;</a></li>
1482                                <li class="interwiki-be">
1483                                        <a href="http://be.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A7%D0%BE%D1%80%D0%BD%D0%B0%D1%8F_%D0%B4%D0%B7%D1%96%D1%80%D0%BA%D0%B0" title="Чорная дзірка">Беларуская</a></li>
1484                                <li class="interwiki-be-x-old">
1485                                        <a href="http://be-x-old.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A7%D0%BE%D1%80%D0%BD%D0%B0%D1%8F_%D0%B4%D0%B7%D1%96%D1%80%D0%BA%D0%B0" title="Чорная дзірка">Беларуская (тарашкевіца)</a></li>
1486                                <li class="interwiki-bo">
1487                                        <a href="http://bo.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E0%BD%93%E0%BD%82%E0%BC%8B%E0%BD%81%E0%BD%B4%E0%BD%84%E0%BC%8B%E0%BC%8D" title="ནག་ཁུང་།">བོད་ཡིག</a></li>
1488                                <li class="interwiki-bs">
1489                                        <a href="http://bs.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crna_rupa" title="Crna rupa">Bosanski</a></li>
1490                                <li class="interwiki-br">
1491                                        <a href="http://br.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toull_du" title="Toull du">Brezhoneg</a></li>
1492                                <li class="interwiki-bg FA" title="This is a featured article in another language.">
1493                                        <a href="http://bg.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A7%D0%B5%D1%80%D0%BD%D0%B0_%D0%B4%D1%83%D0%BF%D0%BA%D0%B0" title="Черна дупка">Български</a></li>
1494                                <li class="interwiki-ca">
1495                                        <a href="http://ca.wikipedia.org/wiki/Forat_negre" title="Forat negre">Catal&agrave;</a></li>
1496                                <li class="interwiki-cs">
1497                                        <a href="http://cs.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C4%8Cern%C3%A1_d%C3%ADra" title="Černá díra">Česky</a></li>
1498                                <li class="interwiki-da">
1499                                        <a href="http://da.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sort_hul" title="Sort hul">Dansk</a></li>
1500                                <li class="interwiki-de">
1501                                        <a href="http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schwarzes_Loch" title="Schwarzes Loch">Deutsch</a></li>
1502                                <li class="interwiki-et">
1503                                        <a href="http://et.wikipedia.org/wiki/Must_auk" title="Must auk">Eesti</a></li>
1504                                <li class="interwiki-el">
1505                                        <a href="http://el.wikipedia.org/wiki/%CE%9C%CE%B1%CF%8D%CF%81%CE%B7_%CF%84%CF%81%CF%8D%CF%80%CE%B1" title="Μαύρη τρύπα">&Epsilon;&lambda;&lambda;&eta;&nu;&iota;&kappa;ά</a></li>
1506                                <li class="interwiki-es">
1507                                        <a href="http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agujero_negro" title="Agujero negro">Espa&ntilde;ol</a></li>
1508                                <li class="interwiki-eo">
1509                                        <a href="http://eo.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nigra_truo" title="Nigra truo">Esperanto</a></li>
1510                                <li class="interwiki-eu FA" title="This is a featured article in another language.">
1511                                        <a href="http://eu.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zulo_beltz" title="Zulo beltz">Euskara</a></li>
1512                                <li class="interwiki-fa">
1513                                        <a href="http://fa.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%B3%DB%8C%D8%A7%D9%87%E2%80%8C%DA%86%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%87" title="سیاه‌چاله">فارسی</a></li>
1514                                <li class="interwiki-fr FA" title="This is a featured article in another language.">
1515                                        <a href="http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trou_noir" title="Trou noir">Fran&ccedil;ais</a></li>
1516                                <li class="interwiki-fy">
1517                                        <a href="http://fy.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swart_gat" title="Swart gat">Frysk</a></li>
1518                                <li class="interwiki-ga">
1519                                        <a href="http://ga.wikipedia.org/wiki/D%C3%BApholl" title="Dúpholl">Gaeilge</a></li>
1520                                <li class="interwiki-gv">
1521                                        <a href="http://gv.wikipedia.org/wiki/Towl_doo" title="Towl doo">Gaelg</a></li>
1522                                <li class="interwiki-gl">
1523                                        <a href="http://gl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burato_negro" title="Burato negro">Galego</a></li>
1524                                <li class="interwiki-gu">
1525                                        <a href="http://gu.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E0%AA%95%E0%AB%83%E0%AA%B7%E0%AB%8D%E0%AA%A3_%E0%AA%B5%E0%AA%BF%E0%AA%B5%E0%AA%B0_(Blackhole)" title="કૃષ્ણ વિવર (Blackhole)">ગુજરાતી</a></li>
1526                                <li class="interwiki-ko">
1527                                        <a href="http://ko.wikipedia.org/wiki/%EB%B8%94%EB%9E%99%ED%99%80" title="블랙홀">한국어</a></li>
1528                                <li class="interwiki-hy">
1529                                        <a href="http://hy.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D5%8D%D6%87_%D5%AD%D5%B8%D5%BC%D5%B8%D5%B9" title="Սև խոռոչ">Հայերեն</a></li>
1530                                <li class="interwiki-hi">
1531                                        <a href="http://hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E0%A4%AC%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B2%E0%A5%88%E0%A4%95_%E0%A4%B9%E0%A5%8B%E0%A4%B2_(%E0%A4%95%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%B2%E0%A4%BE_%E0%A4%9B%E0%A4%BF%E0%A4%A6%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B0)" title="ब्लैक होल (काला छिद्र)">हिन्दी</a></li>
1532                                <li class="interwiki-hsb">
1533                                        <a href="http://hsb.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C4%8Corna_d%C5%BA%C4%9Bra" title="Čorna dźěra">Hornjoserbsce</a></li>
1534                                <li class="interwiki-hr">
1535                                        <a href="http://hr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crna_rupa" title="Crna rupa">Hrvatski</a></li>
1536                                <li class="interwiki-io">
1537                                        <a href="http://io.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nigra_truo" title="Nigra truo">Ido</a></li>
1538                                <li class="interwiki-id">
1539                                        <a href="http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lubang_hitam" title="Lubang hitam">Bahasa Indonesia</a></li>
1540                                <li class="interwiki-is">
1541                                        <a href="http://is.wikipedia.org/wiki/Svarthol" title="Svarthol">&Iacute;slenska</a></li>
1542                                <li class="interwiki-it">
1543                                        <a href="http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buco_nero" title="Buco nero">Italiano</a></li>
1544                                <li class="interwiki-he FA" title="This is a featured article in another language.">
1545                                        <a href="http://he.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D7%97%D7%95%D7%A8_%D7%A9%D7%97%D7%95%D7%A8" title="חור שחור">עברית</a></li>
1546                                <li class="interwiki-jv">
1547                                        <a href="http://jv.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bolongan_ireng" title="Bolongan ireng">Basa Jawa</a></li>
1548                                <li class="interwiki-ka">
1549                                        <a href="http://ka.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E1%83%A8%E1%83%90%E1%83%95%E1%83%98_%E1%83%AE%E1%83%95%E1%83%A0%E1%83%94%E1%83%9A%E1%83%98" title="შავი ხვრელი">ქართული</a></li>
1550                                <li class="interwiki-sw">
1551                                        <a href="http://sw.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shimo_jeusi" title="Shimo jeusi">Kiswahili</a></li>
1552                                <li class="interwiki-ht">
1553                                        <a href="http://ht.wikipedia.org/wiki/Twou_nwa" title="Twou nwa">Krey&ograve;l ayisyen</a></li>
1554                                <li class="interwiki-ku">
1555                                        <a href="http://ku.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%87ala_Re%C5%9F" title="Çala Reş">Kurd&icirc;</a></li>
1556                                <li class="interwiki-krc">
1557                                        <a href="http://krc.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9A%D1%8A%D0%B0%D1%80%D0%B0_%D1%82%D0%B5%D1%88%D0%B8%D0%BA" title="Къара тешик">Къарачай-Малкъар</a></li>
1558                                <li class="interwiki-la">
1559                                        <a href="http://la.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gurges_ater" title="Gurges ater">Latina</a></li>
1560                                <li class="interwiki-lv GA" title="This is a good article in another language.">
1561                                        <a href="http://lv.wikipedia.org/wiki/Melnais_caurums" title="Melnais caurums">Latvie&scaron;u</a></li>
1562                                <li class="interwiki-lt">
1563                                        <a href="http://lt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Juodoji_skyl%C4%97" title="Juodoji skylė">Lietuvių</a></li>
1564                                <li class="interwiki-lmo">
1565                                        <a href="http://lmo.wikipedia.org/wiki/B%C3%BC%C3%BCs_negru" title="Büüs negru">Lumbaart</a></li>
1566                                <li class="interwiki-hu">
1567                                        <a href="http://hu.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fekete_lyuk" title="Fekete lyuk">Magyar</a></li>
1568                                <li class="interwiki-mk">
1569                                        <a href="http://mk.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A6%D1%80%D0%BD%D0%B0_%D0%B4%D1%83%D0%BF%D0%BA%D0%B0" title="Црна дупка">Македонски</a></li>
1570                                <li class="interwiki-ml">
1571                                        <a href="http://ml.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E0%B4%A4%E0%B4%AE%E0%B5%8B%E0%B4%A6%E0%B5%8D%E0%B4%B5%E0%B4%BE%E0%B4%B0%E0%B4%82" title="തമോദ്വാരം">മലയാളം</a></li>
1572                                <li class="interwiki-mt">
1573                                        <a href="http://mt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toqba_sewda" title="Toqba sewda">Malti</a></li>
1574                                <li class="interwiki-mr">
1575                                        <a href="http://mr.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E0%A4%95%E0%A5%83%E0%A4%B7%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%A3%E0%A4%B5%E0%A4%BF%E0%A4%B5%E0%A4%B0" title="कृष्णविवर">मराठी</a></li>
1576                                <li class="interwiki-ms">
1577                                        <a href="http://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lohong_hitam" title="Lohong hitam">Bahasa Melayu</a></li>
1578                                <li class="interwiki-mn">
1579                                        <a href="http://mn.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A5%D0%B0%D1%80_%D0%BD%D2%AF%D1%85" title="Хар нүх">Монгол</a></li>
1580                                <li class="interwiki-nl">
1581                                        <a href="http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zwart_gat" title="Zwart gat">Nederlands</a></li>
1582                                <li class="interwiki-ja">
1583                                        <a href="http://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E3%83%96%E3%83%A9%E3%83%83%E3%82%AF%E3%83%9B%E3%83%BC%E3%83%AB" title="ブラックホール">日本語</a></li>
1584                                <li class="interwiki-no">
1585                                        <a href="http://no.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sort_hull" title="Sort hull">‪Norsk (bokm&aring;l)‬</a></li>
1586                                <li class="interwiki-nn">
1587                                        <a href="http://nn.wikipedia.org/wiki/Svart_h%C3%B2l" title="Svart hòl">‪Norsk (nynorsk)‬</a></li>
1588                                <li class="interwiki-nov">
1589                                        <a href="http://nov.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nigri_true" title="Nigri true">Novial</a></li>
1590                                <li class="interwiki-uz">
1591                                        <a href="http://uz.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qora_tuynuk" title="Qora tuynuk">O&#39;zbek</a></li>
1592                                <li class="interwiki-pl">
1593                                        <a href="http://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Czarna_dziura" title="Czarna dziura">Polski</a></li>
1594                                <li class="interwiki-pt">
1595                                        <a href="http://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buraco_negro" title="Buraco negro">Portugu&ecirc;s</a></li>
1596                                <li class="interwiki-ro">
1597                                        <a href="http://ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gaur%C4%83_neagr%C4%83" title="Gaură neagră">Rom&acirc;nă</a></li>
1598                                <li class="interwiki-ru">
1599                                        <a href="http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A7%D1%91%D1%80%D0%BD%D0%B0%D1%8F_%D0%B4%D1%8B%D1%80%D0%B0" title="Чёрная дыра">Русский</a></li>
1600                                <li class="interwiki-sah">
1601                                        <a href="http://sah.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A5%D0%B0%D1%80%D0%B0_%D0%B4%D1%8C%D3%A9%D0%BB%D3%A9%D2%95%D3%A9%D1%81" title="Хара дьөлөҕөс">Саха тыла</a></li>
1602                                <li class="interwiki-sco">
1603                                        <a href="http://sco.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_hole" title="Black hole">Scots</a></li>
1604                                <li class="interwiki-sq">
1605                                        <a href="http://sq.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vrima_e_zez%C3%AB" title="Vrima e zezë">Shqip</a></li>
1606                                <li class="interwiki-scn">
1607                                        <a href="http://scn.wikipedia.org/wiki/Purt%C3%B9su_n%C3%ACuru" title="Purtùsu nìuru">Sicilianu</a></li>
1608                                <li class="interwiki-simple">
1609                                        <a href="http://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_hole" title="Black hole">Simple English</a></li>
1610                                <li class="interwiki-sk FA" title="This is a featured article in another language.">
1611                                        <a href="http://sk.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C4%8Cierna_diera" title="Čierna diera">Slovenčina</a></li>
1612                                <li class="interwiki-sl">
1613                                        <a href="http://sl.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C4%8Crna_luknja" title="Črna luknja">Sloven&scaron;čina</a></li>
1614                                <li class="interwiki-ckb">
1615                                        <a href="http://ckb.wikipedia.org/wiki/%DA%86%D8%A7%DA%B5%DB%8C_%DA%95%DB%95%D8%B4" title="چاڵی ڕەش">Soran&icirc; / کوردی</a></li>
1616                                <li class="interwiki-sr">
1617                                        <a href="http://sr.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A6%D1%80%D0%BD%D0%B0_%D1%80%D1%83%D0%BF%D0%B0" title="Црна рупа">Српски / Srpski</a></li>
1618                                <li class="interwiki-sh">
1619                                        <a href="http://sh.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crna_rupa" title="Crna rupa">Srpskohrvatski / Српскохрватски</a></li>
1620                                <li class="interwiki-su">
1621                                        <a href="http://su.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liang_hideung" title="Liang hideung">Basa Sunda</a></li>
1622                                <li class="interwiki-fi">
1623                                        <a href="http://fi.wikipedia.org/wiki/Musta_aukko" title="Musta aukko">Suomi</a></li>
1624                                <li class="interwiki-sv GA" title="This is a good article in another language.">
1625                                        <a href="http://sv.wikipedia.org/wiki/Svart_h%C3%A5l" title="Svart hål">Svenska</a></li>
1626                                <li class="interwiki-tl">
1627                                        <a href="http://tl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Itim_na_butas" title="Itim na butas">Tagalog</a></li>
1628                                <li class="interwiki-ta">
1629                                        <a href="http://ta.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E0%AE%95%E0%AE%B0%E0%AF%81%E0%AE%99%E0%AF%8D%E0%AE%95%E0%AF%81%E0%AE%B4%E0%AE%BF" title="கருங்குழி">தமிழ்</a></li>
1630                                <li class="interwiki-te">
1631                                        <a href="http://te.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E0%B0%95%E0%B0%BE%E0%B0%B2%E0%B0%AC%E0%B0%BF%E0%B0%B2%E0%B0%AE%E0%B1%81" title="కాలబిలము">తెలుగు</a></li>
1632                                <li class="interwiki-th">
1633                                        <a href="http://th.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E0%B8%AB%E0%B8%A5%E0%B8%B8%E0%B8%A1%E0%B8%94%E0%B8%B3" title="หลุมดำ">ไทย</a></li>
1634                                <li class="interwiki-tr FA" title="This is a featured article in another language.">
1635                                        <a href="http://tr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kara_delik" title="Kara delik">T&uuml;rk&ccedil;e</a></li>
1636                                <li class="interwiki-tk">
1637                                        <a href="http://tk.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gara_girdap" title="Gara girdap">T&uuml;rkmen&ccedil;e</a></li>
1638                                <li class="interwiki-uk">
1639                                        <a href="http://uk.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A7%D0%BE%D1%80%D0%BD%D0%B0_%D0%B4%D1%96%D1%80%D0%B0" title="Чорна діра">Українська</a></li>
1640                                <li class="interwiki-ur">
1641                                        <a href="http://ur.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%AB%D9%82%D8%A8_%D8%A7%D8%B3%D9%88%D8%AF" title="ثقب اسود">اردو</a></li>
1642                                <li class="interwiki-vec">
1643                                        <a href="http://vec.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buxo_nero" title="Buxo nero">V&egrave;neto</a></li>
1644                                <li class="interwiki-vi">
1645                                        <a href="http://vi.wikipedia.org/wiki/H%E1%BB%91_%C4%91en" title="Hố đen">Tiếng Việt</a></li>
1646                                <li class="interwiki-war">
1647                                        <a href="http://war.wikipedia.org/wiki/Itom_nga_buho" title="Itom nga buho">Winaray</a></li>
1648                                <li class="interwiki-yi">
1649                                        <a href="http://yi.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D7%A9%D7%95%D7%95%D7%90%D7%A8%D7%A6%D7%A2_%D7%9C%D7%90%D7%9A" title="שווארצע לאך">ייִדיש</a></li>
1650                                <li class="interwiki-zh-yue">
1651                                        <a href="http://zh-yue.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E9%BB%91%E6%B4%9E" title="黑洞">粵語</a></li>
1652                                <li class="interwiki-bat-smg">
1653                                        <a href="http://bat-smg.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jouduoj%C4%97_sk%C4%ABlie" title="Jouduojė skīlie">Žemaitė&scaron;ka</a></li>
1654                                <li class="interwiki-zh">
1655                                        <a href="http://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E9%BB%91%E6%B4%9E" title="黑洞">中文</a></li>
1656                        </ul>
1657                </div>
1658        </div>
1659<!-- /LANGUAGES --></div>
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1665                        This page was last modified on 7 August 2010 at 22:53.</li>
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1667                        Text is available under the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Text_of_Creative_Commons_Attribution-ShareAlike_3.0_Unported_License" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License</a>; additional terms may apply. See <a href="http://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Terms_of_Use">Terms of Use</a> for details.<br />
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1669                <li class="noprint">
1670                        <a class="internal" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Contact_us">Contact us</a></li>
1671        </ul>
1672        <ul id="footer-places">
1673                <li id="footer-places-privacy">
1674                        <a href="http://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Privacy_policy" title="wikimedia:Privacy policy">Privacy policy</a></li>
1675                <li id="footer-places-about">
1676                        <a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:About" title="Wikipedia:About">About Wikipedia</a></li>
1677                <li id="footer-places-disclaimer">
1678                        <a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:General_disclaimer" title="Wikipedia:General disclaimer">Disclaimers</a></li>
1679        </ul>
1680        <ul class="noprint" id="footer-icons">
1681                <li id="footer-icon-poweredby">
1682                        <a href="http://www.mediawiki.org/"><img alt="Powered by MediaWiki" height="31" src="http://bits.wikimedia.org/skins-1.5/common/images/poweredby_mediawiki_88x31.png" width="88" /></a></li>
1683                <li id="footer-icon-copyright">
1684                        <a href="http://wikimediafoundation.org/"><img alt="Wikimedia Foundation" height="31" src="/images/wikimedia-button.png" width="88" /></a></li>
1685        </ul>
1686        <div style="clear: both">
1687                &nbsp;</div>
1688</div>
1689<p>
1690<!-- /footer --><!-- fixalpha --><SCRIPT type=text/javascript> if ( window.isMSIE55 ) fixalpha(); </SCRIPT><!-- /fixalpha --><SCRIPT type=text/javascript>if (window.runOnloadHook) runOnloadHook();</SCRIPT><!-- Served by srv213 in 0.055 secs. --></p>
1691<div class="suggestions" style="width: 0px; display: none; top: -2px; right: 1581px; left: auto">
1692        <div class="suggestions-results" jquery1281355532296="22">
1693                &nbsp;</div>
1694        <div class="suggestions-special" jquery1281355532296="23">
1695                &nbsp;</div>
1696</div>
1697<p>
1698        <span _fck_bookmark="1" style="display: none">&nbsp;</span></p>
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